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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-85/16
    In: CRREL Report, 85-16
    Description / Table of Contents: This report presents the results of the second phase of a test program designed to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. In Phase 2, 62 constant-strain-rate uniaxial compression tests were performed on horizontal and vertical ice samples from multi-year pressure ridges to examine the effect of sample orientation on ice strength. Also conducted were 36 constant-strain-rate tension tests, 55 conventional triaxial tests and 35 constant-load compression tests on multi-year pressure ridge samples to provide data for developing ice yield criteria and constitutive laws. Data are presented on the strength, failure strain and modulus of multi-year sea ice under different loading conditions. The effects of ice temperature, porosity, structure, strain rate, confining pressure and sample orientation on the mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice are examined.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vi, 89 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 85-16
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Field sampling program Site selection and description Coring procedures Core logging procedures Shipping and storage of ice samples Ice description Salinity and density Structure Constant-strain-rate compression tests Test variables Uniaxial compressive strength Strength and structure Strength and porosity Residual compressive strength Failure strain Initial tangent modulus Constant-strain-rate uniaxial tension tests Test variables Uniaxial tensile strength Failure strains Initial tangent modulus Constant-strain-rate triaxial tests Equipment Test variables Synthane end caps Triaxial strength Failure strains Initial tangent modulus Effect of sinthane end caps on results Constant-load compression tests Test variables Test results Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Ice structure profile of ridge C core Appendix H: Test data Appendix C: Static determination of Young's modulus in sea ice
    Location: AWI Archive
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  • 2
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/9
    In: CRREL Report, 84-9
    Description / Table of Contents: This report presents the results of the first phase of a test program designed to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. In Phase I, 222 constant-strain-rate uni-axial compression tests were performed on ice samples from ten multi-year pressure ridges to examine the magnitude and variation of ice strength within and between pressure ridges. A limited number of constant-strain-rate compression and tension tests, constant-load compression tests, and conventional triaxial tests were also performed on ice samples from a multi-year floe to provide preliminary data for developing ice yield criteria and constitutive laws for multi-year sea ice. Data are presented on the strength, failure strain, and modulus of multi-year sea ice under different loading conditions. The statistical variation of ice strength within and between pressure ridges is examined, as well as the effects of ice temperature, porosity, structure, strain rate and confining pressure on the mechanical properties of multi-year sea ice.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 107 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-9
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Field Sampling Site selection and description Ice sampling procedures Shipping and storage of ice samples Testing Techniques Multi-year Pressure Ridge Tests Ice description Sampling scheme and test variables Uniaxial compressive strength Residual compressive strength Failure strains Initial tangent modulus Statistical Variations in Ice Strength Differences in strength above and below level ice Sources of the variation in strength Shape of the strength histograms Multi-year Floe Ice Tests Ice description Uniaxial compressive strength Constant-load compression tests Constant-strain-rate tension tests Triaxial tests Conclusions Literature Cited Appendix A: Structural profile of a multi-year pressure ridge core Appendix B: Ridge uniaxial compression test data Appendix C: Structural profile of the continuous multi-year floe core Appendix D: Multi-year floe test data
    Location: AWI Archive
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  • 3
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/8
    In: CRREL Report, 84-8
    Description / Table of Contents: This report describes the equipment and procedures that were used for acquiring, preparing and testing samples of multi-year sea ice. Techniques and procedures are discussed for testing ice samples in compression and tension at constant strain rates and constant loads, as well as in a conventional triaxial cell. A detailed account is given of the application and measurement of forces and dispiacements on the ice test specimens under these different loading conditions.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 43 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-8
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Test material and test specimens Test material Required dimensions for test specimens Acquisition and preparation of specimens Field core sampling Specimen preparation in the laboratory Application of forces and displacements to uniaxial specimens Compression Tension Squareness imperfections Loading devices Universal testing machine Gas actuator for constant load Weight-and-pulley system for constant tension Equipment for triaxial tests Measurement of force and displacement Force Displacement Readouts and recorders Literature cited Appendix A: Phenolic-resin end caps Appendix B: Compliant platens Appendix C: Theoretical factor for converting overall strain to gauge-length strain indumbbell specimens Appci dix D: Items developed but not used in Phase I Appendix E: Use of the Brazil test
    Location: AWI Archive
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  • 4
    Call number: ZSP-201-86/10
    In: CRREL Report, 86-10
    Description / Table of Contents: Icing of a four-bladed rotor was studied under natural conditions at the top of Mt. Washington, N.H. The rotor had two cylindrical blades and two airfoil blades. The results were compared with studies conducted in icing wind tunnels. Considerable differences in icing regimes were observed. For instance, with comparable liquid water content and wind speed the wet-to-dry growth regime transition temperature was up to 10 C higher under natural conditions than in the wind tunnel studies. Results of other studies made under natural conditions were close to those of the present study, indicating that wind tunnel conditions are significantly different from natural conditions. Close examination of the conditions indicated that supersaturation of water vapor existing in most of the wind tunnel studies is the most probable cause of the differences.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 68 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 86-10
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Site weather Site selection Equipment Rotor Data logger Rotoscope Laser profile camera Thin section preparation Run procedure Sample collection and shutdown Dry runs and static runs Results and discussion Wet-to-dry growth regime transition Stagnation line icing rate Icing rate on cylindrical and airfoil blades Liquid water content vs stagnation line icing rate Droplet capture efficiency index Temperature rise Morphological and crystallographic aspects Summary and conclusion Literature cited Appendix A: Chronology of events .. Appendix B: Narrative description of icing runs Appendix C: Weather summary sheets for test days Appendix D: Signal conditioner circuit diagram and sample printout
    Location: AWI Archive
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