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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The need for a well-defined lower boundary condition for atmospheric numerical models is well documented. This paper describes the formulation of a land surface parameterization, which will be used in atmospheric boundary-layer and mesoscale numerical models. The land surface model has three soil layers for the prediction of soil moisture and soil temperature. Model soil properties depend on soil texture and moisture content. A homogeneous distribution of vegetation is also included, so that transpiration may be included, as well as the interception of precipitation by vegetation elements. The simulated vegetation also affects the mean surface albedo and roughness characteristics. First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) data are used to verify the model. Three cases during the growing season were chosen, each case having different amounts of vegetation cover. “Stand alone” simulations, where observations of atmospheric and radiation variables are input to the land surface model, were performed. These simulations show that the model is able to reproduce observed surface energy budgets and surface temperatures reasonably well. The RMS differences between modeled and obsered turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture are quite comparable to those reported by more detailed land surface models.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The sensitivity of the development of the convective planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the surface layer are examined using a coupled surface parameterization and detailed PBL model. First, the coupling is verified against observations from the First ISLSCP (‘International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project’) Field Experiment (FIFE). Results of the sensitivity experiments indicate that the PBL is most sensitive to the amount of soil water content, and the proximity of the soil water content to critical soil texture values (field capacity and wilting point). While vegetation cover is not the most sensitive parameter at the surface, its influence on the surface energy and hydrologic balance is crucial. Model sensitivity to minimum stomatal resistance, type of soil parameterization and canopy height (surface roughness and displacement depth) is also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 28 (2015): 8289–8318, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00555.1.
    Description: This study quantifies mean annual and monthly fluxes of Earth’s water cycle over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the flux estimates are based on satellite measurements first and data-integrating models second. A careful accounting of uncertainty in the estimates is included. It is applied within a routine that enforces multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework in order to produce objectively determined optimized flux estimates. In the majority of cases, the observed annual surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are negligible. Fluxes were poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Many of the satellite systems that contributed data have been or will soon be lost or replaced. Models that integrate ground-based and remote observations will be critical for ameliorating gaps and discontinuities in the data records caused by these transitions. Continued development of such models is essential for maximizing the value of the observations. Next-generation observing systems are the best hope for significantly improving global water budget accounting.
    Description: This research was funded by multiple grants from NASA’s Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program.
    Description: 2016-05-01
    Keywords: Physical Meteorology and Climatology ; Water budget ; Observational techniques and algorithms ; Remote sensing ; Mathematical and statistical techniques ; Numerical analysis/modeling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-15
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 28 (2015): 8319-8346, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00556.1.
    Description: New objectively balanced observation-based reconstructions of global and continental energy budgets and their seasonal variability are presented that span the golden decade of Earth-observing satellites at the start of the twenty-first century. In the absence of balance constraints, various combinations of modern flux datasets reveal that current estimates of net radiation into Earth’s surface exceed corresponding turbulent heat fluxes by 13–24 W m−2. The largest imbalances occur over oceanic regions where the component algorithms operate independent of closure constraints. Recent uncertainty assessments suggest that these imbalances fall within anticipated error bounds for each dataset, but the systematic nature of required adjustments across different regions confirm the existence of biases in the component fluxes. To reintroduce energy and water cycle closure information lost in the development of independent flux datasets, a variational method is introduced that explicitly accounts for the relative accuracies in all component fluxes. Applying the technique to a 10-yr record of satellite observations yields new energy budget estimates that simultaneously satisfy all energy and water cycle balance constraints. Globally, 180 W m−2 of atmospheric longwave cooling is balanced by 74 W m−2 of shortwave absorption and 106 W m−2 of latent and sensible heat release. At the surface, 106 W m−2 of downwelling radiation is balanced by turbulent heat transfer to within a residual heat flux into the oceans of 0.45 W m−2, consistent with recent observations of changes in ocean heat content. Annual mean energy budgets and their seasonal cycles for each of seven continents and nine ocean basins are also presented.
    Description: This study is the result of a collaboration of multiple investigators each supported by the NEWS program.
    Keywords: Climatology ; Energy budget/balance ; Heat budgets/fluxes ; Radiative fluxes ; Surface fluxes ; Satellite observations
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: In this study, we have applied GCM water vapor tracers (WVT) to simulate the North American water cycle. WVTs allow quantitative computation of the geographical source of water for precipitation that occurs anywhere in the model simulation. This can be used to isolate the impact that local surface evaporation has on precipitation, compared to advection and convection. A 15 year 1 deg, 1.25 deg. simulation has been performed with 11 global and 11 North American regional WVTs. Figure 1 shows the source regions of the North American WVTs. When water evaporates from one of these predefined regions, its mass is used as the source for a distinct prognostic variable in the model. This prognostic variable allows the water to be transported and removed (precipitated) from the system in an identical way that occurs to the prognostic specific humidity. Details of the model are outlined by Bosilovich and Schubert (2002) and Bosilovich (2002). Here, we present results pertaining to the onset of the simulated North American monsoon.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: Prospects for Improved Forecasts of Weather and Short-Term Climate Variability on Subseasonal (2-Week to 2-Month) Times Scales; Volume 23; 144-148; NASA/TM-2002-104606/VOL23
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-06-25
    Description: The Global Energy and Water cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) Data and Assessments Panel (GDAP) initiated the GEWEX Water Vapor Assessment (G-VAP), which has the main objectives to quantify the current state of the art in water vapour products being constructed for climate applications and to support the selection process of suitable water vapour products by GDAP for its production of globally consistent water and energy cycle products. During the construction of the G-VAP data archive, freely available and mature satellite and reanalysis data records with a minimum temporal coverage of 10 years were considered. The archive contains total column water vapour (TCWV) as well as specific humidity and temperature at four pressure levels (1000, 700, 500, 300 hPa) from 22 different data records. All data records were remapped to a regular longitude-latitude grid of 2deg 2deg. The archive consists of four different folders: 22 TCWV data records covering the period 2003-2008, 11 TCWV data records covering the period 1988-2008, as well as 7 specific humidity and 7 temperature data records covering the period 1988-2009. The G-VAP data archive is referenced under the following digital object identifier (doi): https://doi.org/10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/GVAP/V001. Within G-VAP, the characterization of water vapour products is, among other ways, achieved through intercomparisons of the considered data records, as a whole and grouped into three classes of predominant retrieval condition: clear-sky, cloudy-sky and all-sky. Associated results are shown using the 22 TCWV data records. The standard deviations among the 22 TCWV data records have been analysed and exhibit distinct maxima over central Africa and the tropical warm pool (in absolute terms) as well as over the poles and mountain regions (in relative terms). The variability in TCWV within each class can be large and prohibits conclusions about systematic differences in TCWV between the classes.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN57426 , Earth System Science Data (ISSN 1866-3508) (e-ISSN 1866-3516); 10; 2; 1093-1117
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: Atmospheric reanalysis have become an important source of data for weather and climate research, owing to the continuity of the data, but especially because of the multitude of observational data included (radiosondes, commercial aircraft, retrieved data products and radiances). However, the presence of assimilated observations can vary based on numerous factors, and so it is difficult or impossible for a researcher to say with any degree of certainty how many and what type of observations contributed to the reanalysis data they are using at any give point in time or space, or their contribution to the eventual analyzed fields. For example, quality control, transmission interruptions, and station outages can occasionally affect data availability. While orbital paths are known, drift in certain instruments, cloud clearing, and the large number of available instruments makes it challenging to know which satellite is observing any region at any point in the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, there is information from the statistics generated by the data assimilation that can help understand the model and the quality of the reanalysis. Typically, the assimilated observations and their innovations are saved in observation-space data formats and are not easily made available to reanalysis users.Here, we present an early version of a data set has been developed to make the MERRA-2 assimilated observations available for rapid and general use, by simplifying the data format. The observations are binned to a grid similar as MERRA-2 and saved as netCDF. This data collection includes the mean and number of observations in the bin as well as its variance. The data will also include the innovations from the data assimilation, the forecast departure and the analysis increment, as well as bias correction (for satellite radiances). In this paper, we present the data format (called MERRA-2 Gridded Innovations and Observations or GIO) and its strengths and limitations with some initial testing and validation of the methodology.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN64294 , American Geophysical Union (AGU) 2018 Fall Meeting; Dec 10, 2018 - Dec 14, 2018; Washington, D.C.; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has completed 27 years of data) soon to be caught up to present. Here) we present an evaluation of those years currently available) including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40) JRA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems, but that the magnitude of energy imbalance in the system is improved with more observations. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: MSFC-E-DAA-TN63553 , American Geophysical Union (AGU) 2018 Fall Meeting; Dec 10, 2018 - Dec 14, 2018; Washington, DC; United States
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