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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The energization process of magnetic pumping, a combination of time dependent magnetic mirror fields with pitch-angle scattering, is applied to trapped charged particles drifting in corotating, azimuthally nonsymmetric neutron star magnetospheres. When particle energization is balanced by synchrotron radiation loss, it is found that protons, rather than electrons, reach considerable kinetic energies and radiate, in the X-ray regime, at rates up to the 10 to the 6th power MeV/proton/sec.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-163021 , REPT-80-6
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The mechanism of magnetic pumping consists of two processes, the adiabatic motion of charged particles in a time varying magnetic field and their pitch-angle diffusion. The result is a systematic increase in the energy of charged particles trapped in mirror (and particularly, magnetospheric) magnetic fields. A numerical model of the mechanism is constructed, compared with analytic theory where possible, and, through elementary exercises, is used to predict the consequences of the process for cases that are not tractable by analytical means. For energy dependent pitch angle diffusion rates, characteristic 'two temperature' distributions are produced. Application of the model to the outer Jovian magnetosphere shows that beyond 20 Jupiter radii in the outer magnetosphere, particles may be magnetically pumped to energies of the order of 1 - 2 MeV. Two temperature distribution functions with "break points" at 1 - 4 KeV for electrons and 8 - 35 KeV for ions are predicted.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-CR-163022 , REPT-80-5
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Ion acceleration and flux increase associated with substorm energetic particle injections are investigated on the basis of geosynchronous observations and test proton orbits in the dynamic fields of a three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of neutral line formation and dipolarization in the magnetotail. The energetic particle flux changes obtained from the test particle orbits agree well with observations that demonstrate rapid ion flux increases at energies of above 20 keV. The injection region inferred from the test particles has a sharp earthward boundary and a sharp ragged tailward boundary. The earthward portion of the enhanced ion flux can be traced to the enhanced cross-tail electric field associated with the near-earth x-type neutral line. Due to the rapid earthward motion of accelerated ions away from the neutral line, this boundary is displaced earthward to where the energetic ions become more adiabatic in the stronger dipolar field.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: ; 243-248
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: After examining the properties of Coulomb-collision resistivity, anomalous (collective) resistivity, and double layers, a hybrid anomalous-resistivity/double-layer model is introduced. In this model, beam-driven waves on both sides of a double layer provide electrostatic plasma-wave turbulence that greatly reduces the mobility of charged particles. These regions then act to hold open a density cavity within which the double layer resides. In the double layer, electrical energy is dissipated with 100 percent efficiency into high-energy particles, creating conditions optimal for the collective emission of polarized radio waves.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 306; 451-465
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  • 5
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The results of analytical studies of quasi-static electric fields along geomagnetic field lines are discussed. The calculations were targeted at the structure, generation mechanisms and stability parameters. The field consists of two oppositely charged layers, either weakly or strongly charged, with an electric field between. Existence conditions are defined for the double layer field and balancing requirements are explored. Details of the simulation techniques, i.e., particle in cell and Vlasov simulations, for studying the double layer are outlined, noting that both periodic and quasi-periodic simulations are used. Solutions to Poisson's equation for fixed and floating point boundary conditions are generated. Finally, attention is also given to oblique and two-dimensional magnetic double layers.
    Keywords: PLASMA PHYSICS
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  • 6
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Magnetized test ions are subjected to acceleration through a numerically simulated oblique double layer in order to determine whether they emerge with velocity vectors aligned with or oblique to the ambient magnetic field. A criterion for oblique alignment, depending on the double-layer parameters and on the external magnetization, is obtained. When it is applied to observed and theoretical auroral double layers, this criterion predicts that accelerated heavy ions will be substantially less magnetic field aligned than will accelerated hydrogen ions, thus suggesting auroral double layers as a source of high-energy ion conics. Test particle simulations are also used to investigate the perpendicular heating of ions at low altitudes by the electric fields associated with moving auroral arcs. The rapid motion of small-scale structures in the arcs is suggested as a source of low-energy conical ion distributions, and the slow drifts of the entire arc forms are inferred to heat ionospheric ions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 2251-226
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A momentum-diffusion formulation that takes the initial values of the particle distribution functions and momentum-space boundary conditions is presently employed for the computational and analytical study of the stochastic energization of charged particles by plasma waves. The nature of the particle distribution functions resulting from stochastic energization and the validity of the momentum-diffusion formulation for the energization are determined. The validity of the momentum-diffusion formulation with power law diffusion coefficients is assessed.
    Keywords: PLASMA PHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 308; 929-953
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Spherically symmetric plasmas with high expansion velocities have been produced by irradiating targets with eight beams from the Helios CO2 laser in the presence of gases at various pressures. Attention was given to the properties of the target-emitted ions in order to obtain information about the ion-acceleration mechanisms in plasma expansions. Photoionization of the ambient gases by the soft X-ray emission from the laser-irradiated targets produced background plasmas, permitting plasma counterstreaming experiments to be performed in spherical geometry. Successful laser-target coupling in the presence of back-ground gases is obtained; modification of the ion acceleration in accordance with isothermal-expansion models is observed; and an absence of collective coupling between collisionless counterstreaming plasmas is found.
    Keywords: PLASMA PHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Plasma Physics (ISSN 0022-3778); 35; 239-256
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The distribution of total and polarized intensities from Mercury's subsurface layers have been mapped using VLA observations. The first detection of a hot pole along the Hermean equator is reported and modeled as black-body reradiation from preferential diurnal heating. These observations appear to rule out any internal sources of heat within Mercury. Polarized emission from the limb of the planet is also found, and is understood in terms of the dielectric properties of the Hermean surface.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 329; 224-226
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The operation of collecting and emitting Langmuir probes and double probes within time-stationary strong electrostatic potential structures is analyzed. The cross sections of spherical and cylindrical probes to charged particles within the structures are presented and used to obtain the current-voltage characteristics of idealized probes. The acquisition of plasma parameters from these characteristics is outlined, and the operation of idealized floating double-probe systems is analyzed. Probe surface effects are added to the idealized theory, and some surface effects pertinent to spacecraft probes are quantified. Magnetic field effects on idealized probes are examined, and the time required for floating probes to change their potentials by collecting charge and by emitting photoelectrons is discussed. Calculations on the space-charge effects of probe-perturbed beams and on the space-charge limiting of electron emission are given in an appendix.
    Keywords: ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
    Type: Physics of Fluids (ISSN 0031-9171); 29; 718-730
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