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  • 1
    Call number: 9/M 07.0421(487)
    In: Geological Society special publication : 487
    Description / Table of Contents: This Special Publication is a celebration of research into the Folding and Fracturing of Rocks to mark the 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal textbook by J. G. Ramsay. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks summarised the key structural geology concepts of the time. Through his numerical and geometric focus John pioneered and provided solutions to understanding the processes leading to the folding and fracturing of rocks. His strong belief that numerical and geometric solutions, to understanding crustal processes, should be tested against field examples added weight and clarity to his work. The basic ideas and solutions presented in the text are as relevant now as they were 50 years ago, and this collection of papers celebrates John's contribution to structural geology. The papers explore the lasting impact of John and his work, they present case studies and a modern understanding of the process documented in the Folding and Fracturing of Rocks.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 351 Seiten , Illustrationen
    ISBN: 978-1-78620-429-5
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication no. 487
    Language: English
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Keywords: structural geology
    Description / Table of Contents: Celebrating 50 years since the publication of Folding and Fracturing of Rocks by J. G. Ramsay / Clare E. Bond and Hermann D. Lebit / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 1-6, 30 July 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487-2019-67 --- Folding and Fracturing of Rocks: the birth of modern structural geology / Susan H. Treagus and Peter J. Hudleston / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 7-9, 16 October 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.2 --- Measuring the research impact of the book Folding and Fracturing of Rocks by John G. Ramsay / Richard J. Lisle, Fernando Bastida and Jesús Aller / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 11-20, 4 January 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.8 --- Fold–thrust structures – where have all the buckles gone? / Robert W. H. Butler, Clare E. Bond, Mark A. Cooper and Hannah Watkins / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 21-44, 20 February 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.7 --- The importance of interfacial instability for viscous folding in mechanically heterogeneous layers / Evangelos Moulas and Stefan M. Schmalholz / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 45-58, 18 December 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.10 --- The influence of layer-interface geometry on single-layer folding / Albert Griera, Enrique Gomez-Rivas and Maria-Gema Llorens / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 59-79, 1 November 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.4 --- Folding during soft-sediment deformation / G. I. Alsop, R. Weinberger, S. Marco and T. Levi / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 81-104, 4 February 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.1 --- Broadhaven revisited: a new look at models of fault–fold interaction / A. J. Cawood and C. E. Bond / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 105-126, 16 January 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.11 --- Syntectonic quartz vein evolution during progressive deformation / Geoffrey E. Lloyd / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 127-151, 19 October 2018, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.3 --- Rheological information determined from cleavage refraction in naturally deformed interlayered quartzites and phyllites / Dyanna M. Czeck, Jolene T. Traut and Peter J. Hudleston / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 153-170, 19 March 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487-2018-49 --- Determining finite strain: how far have we progressed? / Dave McCarthy, Patrick Meere and Kieran Mulchrone / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 171-187, 21 May 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487-2018-62 --- Structure and internal deformation of thrust sheets in the Sawtooth Range, Montana: insights from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility / Dave J. McCarthy, Patrick A. Meere and Michael S. Petronis / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 189-208, 30 January 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.6 --- Fracture distribution on the Swift Reservoir Anticline, Montana: Implications for structural and lithological controls on fracture intensity / Hannah Watkins, Clare E. Bond, Adam J. Cawood, Mark A. Cooper and Marian J. Warren / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 209-228, 16 January 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.9 --- Fracture patterns associated with the evolution of the Teton anticline, Sawtooth Range, Montana, USA / C. M. Burberry, D. L. Cannon, J. W. Cosgrove and T. Engelder / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 229-261, 31 January 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.12 --- Modelling oblique inversion of pre-existing grabens / Hongling Deng, Hemin A. Koyi and Jinjiang Zhang / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 263-290, 22 January 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.5 --- 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology in the Ios basement terrane resolves the tectonic significance of the South Cyclades Shear Zone / Marnie Forster, Oleg Koudashev, Ruoran Nie, Sonia Yeung and Gordon Lister / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 291-313, 23 May 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487-2018-169 --- Structural interpretation of gravity, topography and seismicity / Regan L. Patton and A. John Watkinson / Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 487, 315-343, 22 January 2019, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP487.13
    Pages: Online-Ressource (351 Seiten) , Illustrationen, Diagramme, Karten
    ISBN: 9781786204295
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2007-10-08
    Description: Although the role of extensional tectonics in the exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic terranes is widely established, the kinematics of such deformation remains ambiguous. This paper outlines new field data from the Attic-Cycladic blueschist belt that suggest that distributed ductile strain plays a significant role in the extension and that, consequently, the role of major detachment faults may have been over-emphasized in previous studies. The high-pressure blueschist terrane (Ermoupolis Unit) of Syros shows abundant evidence of subhorizontal extension, manifest as layer boudinage and ductile thinning without the development of significant internal detachments. The deformation approximates to pure shear stretching that was heterogeneously distributed in space and time. Minor zones of asymmetric shear are interpreted not as through-going extensional shear zones but as structures that maintain compatibility between zones of differential stretching. The progression of deformation is charted through the systematic development of increasingly lower-pressure metamorphic assemblages. However, most of the decompression (potentially from 20 kbar to 6 kbar) occurred within the blueschist stability field, as the rocks were actively extending. Heterogeneous retrogression and concomitant deformation are believed to relate to the local chemistry and availability of hydrous fluids.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-03-21
    Description: Faults can act as barriers to fluid flow in sedimentary basins, hindering the migration of buoyant fluids in the subsurface, trapping them in reservoirs and facilitating the build-up of vertical fluid columns. The maximum height of these columns is reliant on the retention potential of the sealing fault with regards to the trapped fluid. Several different approaches for the calculation of maximum supported column height exist for hydrocarbon systems. Here, we translate these approaches to the trapping of carbon dioxide by faults and asses the impact of uncertainties in i) the wettability properties of the fault rock, ii) fault rock composition, and iii) reservoir depth, on retention potential. In similarity to hydrocarbon systems, uncertainties associated with the wettability of a CO2-brine-fault rock system for a given reservoir have less of an impact on column heights than uncertainties of fault rock composition. However, the wettability of the carbon dioxide system is highly sensitive to depth, with a large variation in possible column height predicted at 1000m and 2000m depth, the likely depth range for carbon storage sites. In contrast to hydrocarbon systems higher phyllosilicate entrainment into the fault rock may reduce the amount of carbon dioxide that can be securely retained. Our results show that if approaches developed for fault seal in hydrocarbon systems are translated, without modification, to carbon dioxide systems the capacity of carbon storage sites will be inaccurate, and the predicted security of storage sites erroneous.
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9537
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-05-09
    Description: The use of conceptual models is essential in the interpretation of reflection seismic data. It allows interpreters to make geological sense of seismic data which carries inherent uncertainty. However, conceptual models can create powerful anchors that prevent interpreters from reassessing and adapting their interpretations as part of the interpretation process, which can subsequently lead to flawed or erroneous outcomes. It is therefore critical to understand how conceptual models are generated and applied to reduce unwanted effects in interpretation results. Here we have tested how interpretation of vertically exaggerated seismic data influenced the creation and adoption of the conceptual models of 160 participants in a paper-based interpretation experiment. Participants were asked to interpret a series of faults and a horizon, off-set by those faults, in a seismic section. The seismic section was randomly presented to the participants with different horizontal-vertical exaggeration (1 : 4 or 1 : 2). Statistical analysis of the results indicates that early anchoring to specific conceptual models had the most impact on interpretation outcome; with the degree of vertical exaggeration having a subdued influence. Three different conceptual models were adopted by participants, constrained by initial observations of the seismic data. Interpreted fault dip angles show no evidence of other constraint (e.g. from the application of accepted fault dip models). Our results provide evidence of biases in interpretation of uncertain geological and geophysical data, including the use of heuristics to form initial conceptual models and anchoring to these models, confirming the need for increased understanding and mitigation of these biases to improve interpretation outcomes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9537
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-10
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Faults can act as barriers to fluid flow in sedimentary basins, hindering the migration of buoyant fluids in the subsurface, trapping them in reservoirs, and facilitating the build-up of vertical fluid columns. The maximum height of these columns is reliant on the retention potential of the sealing fault with regards to the trapped fluid. Several different approaches for the calculation of maximum supported column height exist for hydrocarbon systems. Here, we translate these approaches to the trapping of carbon dioxide by faults and assess the impact of uncertainties in (i) the wettability properties of the fault rock, (ii) fault rock composition, and (iii) reservoir depth on retention potential. As with hydrocarbon systems, uncertainties associated with the wettability of a CO2–brine–fault rock system for a given reservoir have less of an impact on column heights than uncertainties of fault rock composition. In contrast to hydrocarbon systems, higher phyllosilicate entrainment into the fault rock may reduce the amount of carbon dioxide that can be securely retained due a preferred CO2 wettability of clay minerals. The wettability of the carbon dioxide system is highly sensitive to depth, with a large variation in possible column height predicted at 1000 and 2000 m of depth, which is the likely depth range for carbon storage sites. Our results show that if approaches developed for fault seals in hydrocarbon systems are translated, without modification, to carbon dioxide systems the capacity of carbon storage sites will be inaccurate and the predicted security of storage sites erroneous.
    Print ISSN: 1869-9510
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9529
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: In recent years uncertainty has been widely recognized in geosciences, leading to an increased need for its quantification. Predicting the subsurface is an especially uncertain effort, as our information either comes from spatially highly limited direct (1-D boreholes) or indirect 2-D and 3-D sources (e.g. seismic). And while uncertainty in seismic interpretation has been explored in 2-D, we currently lack both qualitatitive and quantitative understanding of how interpretational uncertainties of 3-D datasets are distributed. In this work we analyze 78 seismic interpretations done by final year undergraduate (BSc) students of a 3-D seismic dataset from the Gullfaks field located in the northern North Sea. The students used Petrel to interpret multiple (interlinked) faults and to pick the Base Cretaceous Unconformity and Top Ness horizon (part of the Mid-Jurassic Brent Group). We have developed open-source Python tools to explore and visualize the spatial uncertainty of the students fault stick interpretations, the subsequent variation in fault plane orientation and the uncertainty in fault network topology. The Top Ness horizon picks were used to analyze fault offset variations across the dataset and interpretations, with implications for fault throw. We investigate how this interpretational uncertainty interlinks with seismic data quality and the possible use of seismic data quality attributes as a proxy for interpretational uncertainty. Our work provides a first quantification of fault and horizon uncertainties in 3-D seismic interpretation, providing valuable insights into the influence of seismic image quality on 3-D interpretation, with implications for deterministic and stochastic geomodelling and machine learning.
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9537
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-04-05
    Description: In the geosciences, recent attention has been paid to the influence of uncertainty on expert decision making. When making decisions under conditions of uncertainty, people tend to employ heuristics (rules of thumb) based on experience, relying on their prior knowledge and beliefs to intuitively guide choice. Over 50 years of decision making research in cognitive psychology demonstrates that heuristics can lead to less-than-optimal decisions, collectively referred to as biases. For example, a geologist who confidently interprets ambiguous data as representative of a familiar category form their research (e.g., strike slip faults for expert in extensional domains) is exhibiting the availability bias, which occurs when people make judgments based on what is most dominant or accessible in memory. Given the important social and commercial implications of many geoscience decisions, there is a need to develop effective interventions for removing or mitigating decision bias. In this paper, we summarize the key insights from decision making research about how to reduce bias and review the literature on debiasing strategies. First, we define an optimal decision, since improving decision making requires having a standard to work towards. Next, we discuss the cognitive mechanisms underlying decision biases and describe three biases that have been shown to influence geoscientists decision making (availability bias, framing bias, anchoring bias). Finally, we review existing debiasing strategies that have applicability in the geosciences, with special attention given to those strategies that make use of information technology and artificial intelligence (AI). We present two case studies illustrating different applications of intelligent systems for the debiasing of geoscientific decision making, where debiased decision making is an emergent property of the coordinated and integrated processing of human-AI collaborative teams.
    Electronic ISSN: 1869-9537
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-08-01
    Print ISSN: 2324-8858
    Electronic ISSN: 2324-8866
    Topics: Geosciences
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