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  • 1
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper uses a panel data set of microfinance institutions (MFI) across the world to compare several identification strategies of cost efficiency and economies of scale. Concretely, we contrast the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and a distribution-free identification based on time-invariant heterogeneity estimates. Furthermore, we analyze differences of production functions across regions and investigate the relevance of accounting for unobserved heterogeneity across countries. The results suggest that efficiency rankings of MFIs are robust across identification strategies, but highlight the relevance of accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. We further find substantial economies of scale for a pure financial production process. However, accounting for the multi-dimensional production process of MFIs by including a measure of outreach lowers the estimated extent of economies of scale for the parametric estimations, suggesting that producing outreach creates high transaction costs and requires exploitation of local knowledge.
    Keywords: D24 ; G21 ; ddc:330 ; Microfinance ; Cost Efficiency ; Economies of Scale ; SFA ; DEA ; DFA ; Unobserved Heterogeneity ; Outreach ; Mikrofinanzierung ; Entwicklungsorganisation ; Skalenertrag ; Data-Envelopment-Analyse ; Vergleich ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper analyzes the impact of technological diversity on innovation inputs and success using Swiss firm-level panel data. While we do not find any impact of diversity on R&D intensity, we confirm a positive impact of diversity on patent applications as suggested by the literature. However, since patent applications reflect an intermediate innovation input rather than output, we extend the analysis to the share of sales generated by new products. We find a significant negative effect of diversity on the sales share of new products. Hence, technologically more specialized firms have a lower propensity to patent and greater shares of new products. We find neither a direct nor indirect effect of diversity on the sales share generated by improved products. These results suggest that specialization pays-off through more drastic innovations that yield greater market success through a passing monopoly status.
    Keywords: O3 ; ddc:330 ; patent applications ; innovative sales share ; new products ; improved products ; technological diversity ; Patent ; Industrielle Forschung ; Innovation ; Technologiewahl ; Schweiz
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper analyzes how apprenticeship training, i.e., work-based secondary education, affects personality traits compared to full-time school-based vocational or general education. Employing an instrumental variable approach that exploits the regional differences in the relative weight of school- and work-based secondary education across Switzerland and Europe, we determine that apprenticeship training reduces neuroticism and increases agreeableness and conscientiousness, while openness and extraversion remain unaffected. These results validate the socializing function of work-based education. However, heterogeneous treatment effects are found, indicating positive effects for students with less favorable personality traits but insignificant or even reducing effects in the case of extraversion for those with already high values in personality traits.
    Keywords: C26 ; D01 ; I20 ; J24 ; ddc:330 ; Apprenticeship ; work-based education ; VET ; Big Five ; personality traits
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: Analysing a comprehensive panel dataset of economists working at Austrian, German, and Swiss universities, we investigate how the local environment influences a scientist's research productivity. The research environment varies if a scientist joins another department or if the characteristics of his colleagues change. We find no influence of the research environment on the average researcher's productivity, if we control for individual characteristics. This result indicates that with today's communication technologies spillovers are not bounded locally.
    Keywords: I23 ; J62 ; ddc:330 ; University ; economics ; productivity ; mobility ; peer effects ; bibliometrics
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Zurich: ETH Zurich, KOF Swiss Economic Institute
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper uses panel data of Swiss firms to analyze the impact of education level diversity in the workforce on innovation performance, addressing endogeneity by exploiting within firm variation as well as variation in labor supply across regions. We find that vertical educational diversity increases the extensive margin of R&D and product innovation, particularly new product innovation. However, the relationship with process innovation, R&D intensity, and product innovation intensity is insignificant or even negative. These results are in line with the idea that vertical educational diversity enhances the creative moment of the invention phase, while it might affect the commercialization phase negatively due to the dominance of coordination and communication costs relative to the gains in creativity.
    Keywords: O3 ; ddc:330 ; vertical educational diversity ; innovation performance ; R&D ; product innovation ; process innovation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Description: This paper sheds light on the questions how important competences are and which competences can best be learned at school and which competences can be acquired better in the workplace. Exploiting data from a survey among professional tertiary education and training business administration students and their employers in Switzerland, we find that competences related to strategic management, human resource management, organizational design and project management processes are most suitable to be taught in school. However, the results further suggest that soft skills can be acquired more effectively in the workplace than at school. The only exceptions are analytical thinking, joy of learning and organizational competences, for which school and workplace are similarly suitable. Thereby, the paper provides empirical evidence regarding the optimal choice of the learning place for both human resource managers as well as educational decision makers who aim to combine education and training, e.g. in an apprenticeship.
    Keywords: A23 ; I21 ; ddc:330 ; Competences ; soft skills ; school ; workplace learning ; relevance ; learning place
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-24
    Description: The Swiss vocational education and training (VET) system is held in high regard by other countries. Young skilled workers from Switzerland consistently secure top marks at world skills competitions. But how has the social status of VET developed relative to that of baccalaureate schools? What changes can be ascertained in the various parts of the country and population groups? We have been able to answer these and other questions thanks to a new measurement.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-24
    Description: The present report should help the GoN to map out key elements to facilitate TVET federalisation. The report is intended to help stakeholders involved in Nepal's TVET sector understand the key steps to be taken towards federalisation.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-24
    Description: Das Schweizer Berufsbildungssystem geniesst international hohes Ansehen. An den Berufsweltmeisterschaften belegen die jungen Berufsleute aus der Schweiz regelmässig Spitzenplätze. Doch wie hat sich in der Schweiz der soziale Status der Berufsbildung im Vergleich zum gymnasialen Weg entwickelt? Welche Veränderungen lassen sich in den verschiedenen Landesteilen und Bevölkerungsgruppen feststellen? - Diese und andere Fragen können wir dank einer neuen Messgrösse beantworten.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-24
    Description: The SkillsFuture Earn and Learn Programme (ELP) targets graduates from the Institute of Technical Education (ITE) and Polytechnics. During the programme's 12-to-18-month duration, ELP participants spend about 20% of their time in classroom education at the ITE and Polytechnics and 80% in structured workplace training. In order to introduce the programme in 2015, participation of both students and firms was subsidized. This raises the question of whether these subsidies are necessary in the long run, so this research project aims to measure the costs and benefits of the ELP from the perspective of firms. The methodology uses a mixed-method design that combines quantitative surveys of both participating and non-participating firms with qualitative interviews among firms that participate in the ELP.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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