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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Solid State Ionics 28-30 (1988), S. 254-256 
    ISSN: 0167-2738
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0167-9317
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0168-9452
    Keywords: Nicotiana tabacum ; chitinase mRNA induction ; pathogenesis-related proteins ; tobacco mosaic virus ; β-1,3-glucanase mRNA induction
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0885-5765
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Arbuscular mycorrhizae ; Biological (organic) farming ; Conventional farming ; Glomus mosseae ; Winter wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonization was studied in a long-term field trial in which four farming systems currently in use in Switzerland were continuously applied to a randomized set of plots at a single field site from 1978 till 1993. There were two low-input farming systems (organic and bio-dynamic) and two high-input (conventional) farming systems (according to Swiss guidelines of integrated plant production with and without farmyard manure). The systems had an identical 7-year crop rotation and tillage scheme and differed essentially only in the amount and type of fertilizer supplied and in plant protection management. The percentage of root colonization by AM fungi was determined in field samples 2–3 times over the growing season in crops in the rotation, namely in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Sardona), vetch-rye and grass-clover. We found the percentage of root length colonized by AM fungi to be 30–60% higher (P≤0.05) in the plants grown in soils from the low-input farming systems than in those grown in conventionally farmed soils. Approximately 50% of the variation of AM root colonization was explained by chemical properties of the soils (pH, soluble P and K, exchangeable Mg), the effect of soluble soil P being most pronounced. The potential of the field soils from the differently managed plots to cause symbiosis with AM fungi was tested in a glasshouse experiment, using wheat as a host plant. Soils from the low-input farming systems had a greatly enhanced capacity to initiate AM symbiosis. The relative differences in this capacity remained similar when propagules of the AM fungus Glomus mosseae were experimentally added to the soils, although overall root colonization by AM fungi was 2.8 times higher.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im Zuge der Ausarbeitung möglichst einfacher Systeme zur Mutagenitätsprüfung chemischer Substanzen am Säugetier wurde abgeklärt, wie weit die Aanalyse an gewöhnlichen Knochenmarkausstrichen die aufwendigere Chromosomenuntersuchung zu ersetzen vermag. Chinesische Hamster wurden an 2 aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen mit verschieden hohen und in einem Langzeitversuch mit 12 täglichen Injektionen von niedrigen Dosen Trenimon behandelt. Es wurden Präparate von Knochenmark und Herzblut angefertigt und der Effekt unter den verschiedenen Dosen und zu verschiedenen Zeiten nach der Behandlung sowie am Ende des Langzeitversuches beurteilt. Neben einem rapiden Zellschwund bei höheren Dosen, der mit z. T. uneinheitlichen und nur schwer überblickbaren quantitativen Zelltypenverschiebungen im Knochenmark einherging, konnten verschiedene atypische Zell-und Kernformen beobachtet werden, die quantitativ in Abhängigkeit von Dosis und Zeit erfaßt wurden und bezüglich Häufigkeit und Morphologie mit bekannten cytogenetischen Befunden verglichen wurden. Es ließen sich z. T. weitgehende parallelen feststellen, und es konnte damit dieser hämatologisch-morphologischen Knochenmarkuntersuchung eine Bedeutung als relativ einfaches Testsystem zur Erfassung chromosomenschädigender Mutagene zugesprochen werden. Es wird vorgeschlagen, dieses Verfahren als “Mikrokern-Test” zu bezeichnen. Ein besonderer Vorteil der Methode liegt darin, daß sie, unabhängig von einem günstigen Chromosomensatz, bei verschiedensten Säugetierspecies durchgeführt werden kann.
    Notes: Summary Exploring systems for chemical mutagenicity testing in mammals it was investigated how far scoring of simple bone marrow smears can replace the more complicated chromosome analyses. Chinese hamsters were treated with Trenimon for 2 and for 12 days. Preparations were made from bone marrow and blood, and the effect of the drug was studied in relation to dose, time after treatment, and at the end of a 12 day treatment with low doses. With high doses a rapid depletion of the bone marrow was observed; the concommitant shift in the relative proportions of different cell types was found to be inconsistent and difficult to quantitate. On the other hand, a number of well defined structural nuclear anomalies were observed. Their incidence was found to be dependent on dose and time after treatment. These findings showed a high degree of correlation with the results of previous cytogenetic studies on the incidence of chromosome aberrations obtained under identical conditions. It was concluded that the hematological study of bone marrow is suitable as a relatively simple screening method in mutagenicity testing. It is proposed to call this procedure ”micronucleus test”. A particular advantage of the method is, that it can be applied, independently of a favorable karyotype, to various mammalian species.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Ectomycorrhizae ; Physiological ecology ; Forest decline
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The mycorrhizal activity of spruce in a mixed-wood forest was monitored over 1 year by measuring biochemical characters in fine roots of six canopy trees and of a regrowth stand. The concentration of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), a measure of living biomass, showed two peaks per year, one at bud break and one after main shoot growth. The concentration of storage polysaccharides in mycorrhizae showed the same cycles even more pronouncedly. It is proposed that these changes reflect growth and senescence of mycorrhizae and that the timing of the cycles is controlled by translocation of assimilates from the shoot. Differences between mycorrhizae collected from canopy trees and the regrowth stand were small and not significant. Characters known to be related to fungal activity of the mycorrhizal symbiosis (concentration of trehalose, glucose uptake, respiration) also varied little among the six canopy trees. Large differences among fine-root samples from different canopy trees, however, were detected in the concentrations of ATP and storage polysaccharides, measures which seemed to be physiologically integrated within trees. If low concentrations in roots precede losses of foliage from trees, these two symptoms could be used as early indicators of growth decline in individual spruce trees.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Picea abies ; Ectomycorrhizae ; Physiological ecology ; Forest decline
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The mycorrhizal activity of spruce in a mixed-wood forest was monitored over 1 year by measuring biochemical characters in fine roots of six canopy trees and of a regrowth stand. The concentration of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), a measure of living biomass, showed two peaks per year, one at bud break and one after main shoot growth. The concentration of storage polysaccharides in mycorrhizae showed the same cycles even more pronouncedly. It is proposed that these changes reflect growth and senescence of mycorrhizae and that the timing of the cycles is controlled by translocation of assimilates from the shoot. Differences between mycorrhizae collected from canopy trees and the regrowth stand were small and not significant. Characters known to be related to fungal activity of the mycorrhizal symbiosis (concentration of trehalose, glucose uptake, respiration) also varied little among the six canopy trees. Large differences among fine-root samples from different canopy trees, however, were detected in the concentrations of ATP and storage polysaccharides, measures which seemed to be physiologically integrated within trees. If low concentrations in roots precede losses of foliage from trees, these two symptoms could be used as early indicators of growth decline in individual spruce trees.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Field evaluation ; Lolium perenne L. ; Primary regenerants ; Progenies ; Somaclonal variation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Two sets of plants (Lb and Lc), regenerated from different single-genotype-derived embryogenic suspension cultures of Lolium perenne cv Citadel, were evaluated for agronomic traits in a modified polycross design in the field. Seed from the primary regenerated plants was harvested to evaluate morphological and phenological traits of corresponding progenies in a replicated field experiment. When compared to seed-grown plants of the same cultivar, primary regenerants of the Lb set showed a significant delay in ear emergence and a more-erect growth habit, while primary regenerants from the Lc set showed a significantly higher seed yield. However, progenies of regenerated plants did not differ from those of seed-grown plants. Embryogenic suspension cells of L. perenne have the potential for producing fertile, well-performing, material which can be integrated into breeding programs.
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