Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract The pH of a hydraulic calcium phosphate cement (HCPC) made of monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O; MCPM), β-tricalcium phosphate (β-(Ca3(PO4)2; β-TCP) and water was measured as a function of reaction time and composition at room temperature. During setting, the cement pH varies from very acidic pH values, i.e., 2.5, to almost neutral pH values, i.e., 6. The cement pH profile significantly depends on the initial cement composition. However, all profiles are characterized by a sharp initial decrease of the pH due to the dissolution of MCPM crystals and the precipitation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4· 2H2O; DCPD) crystals. With an excess of MCPM, the final pH stays low, and its value can be predicted from the initial composition of the cement and solubility data. With an excess of β-TCP, the end pH is close to 5, which is much lower than 5.9, the value predicted by calculation. Results suggest that the difference may be due to the presence of impurities in the cement. Replacing MCPM by phosphoric acid renders the cement paste very acidic for the initial 30 s, but then the pH profile follows that obtained with MCPM. Adding pyrophosphate ions into the cement paste postpones the position of the pH minimum. The delay, which is proportional to the concentration of pyrophosphate ions, is thought to be due to the inhibiting action of pyrophosphate ions on the precipitation of DCPD crystals.
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