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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 68 (1996), S. 1930-1932 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Thin polyimide films with dispersed nano-foam morphology have been prepared for the purpose of obtaining low dielectric polymer insulators for microelectronic applications. They were obtained by utilizing micro phase-separated triblock copolymers where the thermally stable polyimide matrix component was derived from pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) with 1,1-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1-phenyl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (3F) and a thermally labile poly(propylene oxide)(PO) component comprised the outside block of the ABA triblock architecture. TEM studies show that the initial irregular nanoscale phase-separated morphology of polyimide triblock copolymers are mostly maintained in the final nano-foam films upon thermal decomposition of the dispersed PO component. The nano-foam polyimide films exhibit significantly lower dielectric constants ε′ (e.g., 2.3 at 19% porosity) as compared with ε′≈2.9 for the homopolymer, as predicted by Maxwell–Garnett theory, with the nano-pore structures remaining stable at 350 °C. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Tetrahedron Letters 33 (1992), S. 6759-6762 
    ISSN: 0040-4039
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1996-04-01
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-01-14
    Description: This study focuses on the prediction of event based runoff coefficients (an important descriptor of flood events) for nested catchments up to an area of 50 km² in the Eastern Ore Mountains. The four main objectives of the study are: i) the prediction of runoff coefficients with the statistical method of generalized linear models, ii) the comparison of the results of the linear models with estimates of a distributed conceptual model, iii) the comparison of the dynamics of observed soil moisture and simulated saturation deficit of the hydrological model, and iv) the analysis of the relationship between runoff coefficient and observed and simulated wetness. Different predictor variables were selected to describe the runoff coefficient and were differentiated into variables describing the catchment's antecedent wetness and meteorological forcing. The best statistical model was estimated in a stepwise approach based on hierarchical partitioning, an exhaustive search algorithm and model validation with jack-knifing. We then applied the rainfall runoff model WaSiM ETH to predict the runoff processes for the two larger catchments. Locally measured small scale soil moisture (acquired at a scale 4-5 magnitudes smaller than the catchment) was identified as one of the key predictor variables for the estimation of the runoff coefficient with the general linear model. It was found that the relationship between observed and simulated (using WaSiM ETH) wetness is strongly hysteretic. The runoff coefficients derived from the rainfall runoff simulations systematically underestimate the observed values. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Print ISSN: 0885-6087
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1085
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-11-26
    Description: In 2012, we developed a proof-of-concept system for a new open-path laser absorption spectrometer concept for measuring atmospheric CO2. The measurement approach utilizes high-reliability all-fiber-based, continuous-wave laser technology, along with a unique all-digital lock-in amplifier method that, together, enables simultaneous transmission and reception of multiple fixed wavelengths of light. This new technique, which utilizes very little transmitted energy relative to conventional lidar systems, provides high signal-to-noise (SNR) measurements, even in the presence of a large background signal. This proof-of-concept system, tested in both a laboratory environment and a limited number of field experiments over path lengths of 680 m and 1,600 m, demonstrated SNR values >1,000 for received signals of ~18 picoWatts averaged over 60 s. A SNR of 1,000 is equivalent to a measurement precision of ±0.001 or ~0.4 ppmv. The measurement method is expected to provide new capability for automated monitoring of greenhouse gas at fixed sites, such as carbon sequestration facilities, volcanoes, the short- and long-term assessment of urban plumes, and other similar applications. In addition, this concept enables active measurements of column amounts from a geosynchronous orbit for a network of ground-based receivers/stations that would complement other current and planned space-based measurement capabilities.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 6
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-11-12
    Description: In this paper, we analyse the effectiveness of flood management measures based on the concept known as "retaining water in the landscape". The investigated measures include afforestation, micro-ponds and small-reservoirs. A comparative and model-based methodological approach has been developed and applied for three meso-scale catchments located in different European hydro-climatological regions: Poyo (184 km2) in the Spanish Mediterranean, Upper Iller (954 km2) in the German Alps and Kamp (621 km2) in Northeast-Austria representing the Continental hydro-climate. This comparative analysis has found general similarities in spite of the particular differences among studied areas. In general terms, the flood reduction through the concept of "retaining water in the landscape" depends on the following factors: the storage capacity increase in the catchment resulting from such measures, the characteristics of the rainfall event, the antecedent soil moisture condition and the spatial distribution of such flood management measures in the catchment. In general, our study has shown that, this concept is effective for small and medium events, but almost negligible for the largest and less frequent floods: this holds true for all different hydro-climatic regions, and with different land-use, soils and morphological settings.
    Print ISSN: 1561-8633
    Electronic ISSN: 1684-9981
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2009-07-17
    Description: Spatial patterns as well as temporal dynamics of soil moisture have a major influence on runoff generation. The investigation of these dynamics and patterns can thus yield valuable information on hydrological processes, especially in data scarce or previously ungauged catchments. The combination of spatially scarce but temporally high resolution soil moisture profiles with episodic and thus temporally scarce moisture profiles at additional locations provides information on spatial as well as temporal patterns of soil moisture at the hillslope transect scale. This approach is better suited to difficult terrain (dense forest, steep slopes) than geophysical techniques and at the same time less cost-intensive than a high resolution grid of continuously measuring sensors. Rainfall simulation experiments with dye tracers while continuously monitoring soil moisture response allows for visualization of flow processes in the unsaturated zone at these locations. Data was analyzed at different spacio-temporal scales using various graphical methods, such as space-time colour maps (for the event and plot scale) and binary indicator maps (for the long-term and hillslope scale). Annual dynamics of soil moisture and decimeter-scale variability were also investigated. The proposed approach proved to be successful in the investigation of flow processes in the unsaturated zone and showed the importance of preferential flow in the Malalcahuello Catchment, a data-scarce catchment in the Andes of Southern Chile. Fast response times of stream flow indicate that preferential flow observed at the plot scale might also be of importance at the hillslope or catchment scale. Flow patterns were highly variable in space but persistent in time. The most likely explanation for preferential flow in this catchment is a combination of hydrophobicity, small scale heterogeneity in rainfall due to redistribution in the canopy and strong gradients in unsaturated conductivities leading to self-reinforcing flow paths.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2009-07-07
    Description: The temporal dynamics of hydrological model performance gives insights into errors that cannot be obtained from global performance measures assigning a single number to the fit of a simulated time series to an observed reference series. These errors can include errors in data, model parameters, or model structure. Dealing with a set of performance measures evaluated at a high temporal resolution implies analyzing and interpreting a high dimensional data set. This paper presents a method for such a hydrological model performance assessment with a high temporal resolution and illustrates its application for two very different rainfall-runoff modeling case studies. The first is the Wilde Weisseritz case study, a headwater catchment in the eastern Ore Mountains, simulated with the conceptual model WaSiM-ETH. The second is the Malalcahuello case study, a headwater catchment in the Chilean Andes, simulated with the physics-based model Catflow. The proposed time-resolved performance assessment starts with the computation of a large set of classically used performance measures for a moving window. The key of the developed approach is a data-reduction method based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) and cluster analysis to classify the high-dimensional performance matrix. Synthetic peak errors are used to interpret the resulting error classes. The final outcome of the proposed method is a time series of the occurrence of dominant error types. For the two case studies analyzed here, 6 such error types have been identified. They show clear temporal patterns, which can lead to the identification of model structural errors.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-01-31
    Description: This study focuses on the prediction of event-based runoff coefficients (an important descriptor of flood events) for nested catchments up to an area of 50km2 in the Eastern Ore Mountains. The four main objectives of the study are (i) the prediction of runoff coefficients with the statistical method of generalized linear models, (ii) the comparison of the results of the linear models with estimates of a distributed conceptual model, (iii) the comparison of the dynamics of observed soil moisture and simulated saturation deficit of the hydrological model and (iv) the analysis of the relationship between runoff coefficient and observed and simulated wetness. Different predictor variables were selected to describe the runoff coefficient and were differentiated into variables describing the catchment's antecedent wetness and meteorological forcing. The best statistical model was estimated in a stepwise approach on the basis of hierarchical partitioning, an exhaustive search algorithm and model validation with jackknifing. We then applied the rainfall runoff model WaSiM ETH to predict the runoff processes for the two larger catchments. Locally measured small-scale soil moisture (acquired at a scale of four to five magnitudes smaller than the catchment) was identified as one of the key predictor variables for the estimation of the runoff coefficient with the general linear model. It was found that the relationship betweenobserved and simulated (using WaSiM ETH) wetness is strongly hysteretic. The runoff coefficients derived from the rainfall runoff simulations systematically underestimate the observed values. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Print ISSN: 0885-6087
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1085
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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