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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Accurate, reproducible, and non-invasive means for ventricular volume determination are needed for evaluating cardiovascular function zero-gravity. Current echocardiographic methods, particularly for the right ventricle, suffer from a large standard error. A new mathematical approach, recently described by Watanabe et al., was tested on 1 normal formalin-fixed human hearts suspended in a mineral oil bath. Volumes are estimated from multiple two-dimensional echocardiographic views recorded from a single point at sequential angles. The product of sectional cavity area and center of mass for each view summed over the range of angles (using a trapezoidal rule) gives volume. Multiple (8-14) short axis right ventricle and left ventricle views at 5.0 deg intervals were videotaped. The images were digitized by two independent observers (leading-edge to leading-edge technique) and analyzed using a graphics tablet and microcomputer. Actual volumes were determined by filling the chambers with water. These data were compared to the mean of the two echo measurements.
    Keywords: LIFE SCIENCES (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA. Washington NASA Space Biol. Program; p 75
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: NASA-CR-142616
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: The human cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity was investigated in the framework of the German Spacelab D2 mission. Preflight and postflight studies were performed to examine the relationship between disuse atrophy and the function of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Special attention was given to fluid load responses and postflight orthostatic hypotension. The preflight measurements were obtained, in supine and sitting positions. These measurements, carried out in the four D2 crew members, were performed six and nine months before flight and on mission day number five. The results obtained on the male crew showed that the stroke volume data from microgravity are virtually identical to preflight measurements in the sitting position.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: ; 50-53
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Many astronauts returning from space have difficulties regulating blood pressure, some to the point of fainting during quiet standing. Experiment 294 was designed to study this and other cardiovascular effects of adaptation to microgravity and to understand the mechanisms behind it. To accomplish this several cardiovascular variables had to be measured accurately. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output (blood pumped by the heart each minute), stroke volume (blood pumped by the heart with each beat), limb flow, limb compliance, heart size and central venous pressure all had to been recorded during various stresses to understand fully the adaptation to space and the readaptation to earth's gravity. Numerous pieces of equipment were used. Some were purpose-built for the Spacelab mission and others were derived from commercial hardware. Developing spaceflight hardware is challenging and costly, but can lead to significant new information in the unique environment of space.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: SAE PAPER 911563
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 45 (1983), S. 169-189 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Increased sensitivity of end-organ responses to neuroendocrine stimuli as a result of prolonged exposure to the relative inactivity of microgravity has recently been hypothesized. This notion is based on the inverse relationship between circulating norepinephrine and beta-adrenoreceptor sensitivity. The beta-adrenoreceptor activity is reduced in individuals who have elevated plasma norepinephrine as a result of regular exposure to upright posture and physical exercise. In contrast, adrenoreceptor hypersensitivity has been reported in patients with dysautonomias in which circulating catecholamines are absent or reduced. Taken together, these studies and the observation that circulating plasma norepinephrine has been reduced during spaceflight and in groundbased simulations of microgravity prompt the suggestion that adrenoreceptor hypersensitivity may be a consequence of the adaptation to spaceflight. We conducted an experiment designed to measure cardiovascular responses to adrenoreceptor agonists in human subjects before and after prolonged exposure to 6 deg head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that adaptation to microgravity increases adrenoreceptor responsiveness, and that this adaptation is associated with reduced levels of circulating norepinephrine.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: Journal of Gravitational Physiology, Volume 2, No. 1; 66-67
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Orthostatic intolerance may result from either an abnormally large postural decrease in central blood volume, cardiac filling pressures, and stroke volume, or inadequate neurohumoral responses to orthostasis. Endurance athletes have been reported as having a high incidence of orthostatic intolerance, which has been attributed primarily to abnormalities in baroreflex regulation of heart rate and peripheral resistance. In this review, we present evidence that athletes also have structural changes in the cardiovascular system that although beneficial during exercise, lead to an excessively large decrease in stroke volume during orthostasis and contribute to orthostatic intolerance. A unifying hypothesis based on cardiac mechanics that may explain the divergence of findings in conditions such as bed rest or spaceflight, and short- and long-term endurance training is presented.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: Medicine and science in sports and exercise (ISSN 0195-9131); Volume 25; 6; 727-32
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: There exists a growing body of research that relates the measurement of pressure-wave velocity in bone to different physiological conditions and treatment modalities. The shear-wave velocity has been less studied, although it is necessary for a more complete understanding of the mechanical properties of bone. Ultrasound critical-angle reflectometry (UCR) is a noninvasive and nondestructive technique previously used to measure pressure-wave velocities both in vitro and in vivo. This note describes its application to the measurement of shear-wave velocity in bone, whether directly accessible or covered by soft tissue.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Ultrasound in medicine & biology (ISSN 0301-5629); Volume 23; 7; 1123-6
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: PURPOSE: To assess correlations between muscle edema on magnetic resonance (MR) images and clinical indexes of muscle injury in delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) produced by submaximal exercise protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen subjects performed 36 elbow flexions ("biceps curls") at one of two submaximal workloads that emphasized eccentric contractions. Changes in MR imaging findings, plasma levels of creatine kinase, and pain scores were correlated. RESULTS: Both exercise protocols produced DOMS in all subjects. The best correlation was between change in creatine kinase level and volume of muscle edema on MR images, regardless of the workload. Correlations tended to be better with the easier exercise protocol. CONCLUSION: Whereas many previous studies of DOMS focused on intense exercise protocols to ensure positive results, the present investigation showed that submaximal workloads are adequate to produce DOMS and that correlations between conventionally measured indexes of injury may be enhanced at lighter exercise intensities.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Radiology (ISSN 0033-8419); Volume 208; 3; 815-20
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Nitric oxide is hypothesized to be an inhibitory modulator of central sympathetic nervous outflow, and deficient neuronal nitric oxide production to cause sympathetic overactivity, which then contributes to nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension. The biochemical and neuroanatomical basis for this concept revolves around nitric oxide modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within brainstem vasomotor centers. The functional consequence of neuronal nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation is, however, marked by an apparent conflict in the literature. On one hand, conscious animal studies using sympathetic blockade suggest a significant role for neuronal nitric oxide deficiency in the development of nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension, and on the other hand, there is evidence against such a role derived from 'knock-out' mice lacking nitric-oxide synthase 1, the major source of neuronal nitric oxide.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension (ISSN 1062-4821); Volume 8; 1; 61-73
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