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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    Annual Review of Physiology 42 (1980), S. 573-586 
    ISSN: 0066-4278
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Medicine , Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Treatment of insulin dependent diabetes invariably requires exogenous insulin to control blood glucose. Insulin treatment, independent of other factors associated with insulin dependent diabetes, may induce changes that affect glomerular function. Due to exogenous delivery of insulin in insulin dependent diabetes entering systemic circulation prior to the portal vein, plasma levels of insulin are often in excess of that observed in non-diabetics. The specific effects of hyperinsulinemia on glomerular hemodynamics have not been previously examined. Micropuncture studies were performed in control (non-diabetic), untreated diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats 7 to 10 days after administration of 65 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin. After the first period micropuncture measurements were obtained, 5 U of regular insulin (Humulin-R) was infused i.v., and glucose clamped at euglycemic values (80 to 120 mg/dl). Blood glucose concentration in non-diabetic controls was 99 +/- 6 mg/dl. In control rats, insulin infusion and glucose clamp increased nephron filtration rate due to decreases in both afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance (afferent greater than efferent) resulting in increased plasma flow and increased glomerular hydrostatic pressure gradient. However, insulin infusion and glucose clamp produced the opposite effect in both untreated and insulin-treated diabetic rats with afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction resulting in decreases in plasma flow, glomerular hydrostatic pressure gradient and nephron filtration rate. Thromboxane A2 (TX) synthetase inhibition partially decreased the vasoconstrictive response due to acute insulin infusion in diabetic rats preventing the decrease in nephron filtration rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Kidney international (ISSN 0085-2538); 42; 5; 1160-8
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The hypothesis that renal alpha 2 adrenoceptors influence nephron filtration rate (SNGFR) via interaction with angiotensin II (AII) was tested by renal micropuncture. The physical determinants of SNGFR were assessed in adult male Munich Wistar rats 5-7 d after ipsilateral surgical renal denervation (DNX). DNX was performed to isolate inhibitory central and presynaptic alpha 2 adrenoceptors from end-organ receptors within the kidney. Two experimental protocols were employed: one to test whether prior AII receptor blockade with saralasin would alter the glomerular hemodynamic response to alpha 2 adrenoceptor stimulation with the selective agonist B-HT 933 under euvolemic conditions, and the other to test whether B-HT 933 would alter the response to exogenous AII under conditions of plasma volume expansion. In euvolemic rats, B-HT 933 caused SNGFR to decline as the result of a decrease in glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient (LpA), an effect that was blocked by saralasin. After plasma volume expansion, B-HT 933 showed no primary effect on LpA but heightened the response of arterial blood pressure, glomerular transcapillary pressure gradient, and LpA to AII. The parallel results of these converse experiments suggest a complementary interaction between renal alpha 2-adrenergic and AII systems in the control of LpA.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: The Journal of clinical investigation (ISSN 0021-9738); 90; 2; 604-11
    Format: text
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