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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Large areas of nuclear emulsions and plastic detectors were exposed to the primary cosmic radiation during high altitude balloon flights. From the analysis of 141 particle tracks recorded during a total exposure of 1.3 x 10 to the 7th power sq m ster.sec., a charge spectrum of the VVH particles has been derived.
    Keywords: PHYSICS, ATOMIC, MOLECULAR, AND NUCLEAR
    Type: NASA-CR-138157
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Several source spectra were constructed from combinations of 4- and s-process nuclei to match the observed charge spectrum of VVH particles. Their propagation was then followed, allowing for interactions and decay, and comparisons were made between the calculated near-earth spectra and those observed during high altitude balloon flights. None of the models gave good agreement with observations.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-CR-136366
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The physical properties of impact features observed in the Solar Max main electronics box (MEB) thermal blanket generally suggest an origin by hypervelocity impact. The chemistry of micrometeorite material suggests that a wide variety of projectile materials have survived impact with retention of varying degrees of pristinity. Impact features that contain only spacecraft paint particles are on average smaller than impact features caused by micrometeorite impacts. In case both types of materials co-occur, it is belevied that the impact feature, generally a penetration hole, was caused by a micrometeorite projectile. The typically smaller paint particles were able to penetrate though the hole in the first layer and deposit in the spray pattern on the second layer. It is suggested that paint particles have arrived with a wide range of velocities relative to the Solar Max satellite. Orbiting paint particles are an important fraction of materials in the near-Earth environment. In general, the data from the Solar Max studies are a good calibration for the design of capture cells to be flown in space and on board Space Station. The data also suggest that development of multiple layer capture cells in which the projectile may retain a large degree of pristinity is a feasible goal.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Trajectory Determinations and Collection of Micrometeoroids on the Space Station; p 72-75
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Hydrogen ion beams were found to form submicrometer, bumpy textures on the surface of ilmenite grains. From this effect, it is believed that similar bumpy textures seen on lunar ilmenite, pyroxene, and olivine grains are likely to be caused by solar wind irradiation. As a consequence, the concentration of bumpy textured grains may be a useful index of surface maturity for lunar soils. An attempt was made to search for grains with these bumpy textures in interplanetary dust and lunar and meteoritic regolith breccias in order to obtain information about the duration of their exposure to the solar wind. Solar wind irradiation was simulated on natural, terrestrial ilmenite. Hydrogen ion beams were directed at small grains and polished sections which were then examined by electron microscopy.
    Keywords: INORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
    Type: NASA. Johnson (Lyndon B.) Space Center The 1983 NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Research Program Research Reports; NASA. Johnson (Lynd
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Particle track measurements have been reported for 25 (5 percent) of the regolith breccias in the collection; they have been reported for 16 breccias (30%) in the reference suite. The most frequently reported measurement for these 25 breccias is the maximum surface exposure age of the compacted rock (48% of the published breccia measurements). Information on the nature of the precompaction regolith is given for 9 rocks (36%) and on the nature of the compaction event for 6 rocks (24%). Most of the breccias appear to have simple post compaction surface exposure histories (89%). From the few track density frequency distributions (7) that are available and inferring from the low exposure ages of these rocks (75% were younger than 10 to the 6th years), it appears that most of these breccias are amenable to studies which separate the contemporary surface exposure age from information about the precompaction regolith. If the number of immature submature precompaction soils (6 out of 10 of the breccias for which appropriate data are available) represents many regolith breccias, then it is inferred that regolith breccias may sample the deeper, less reworked materials in the lunar soil and compliment the samples available from the returned cores.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on Past and Present Solar Radiation: The Record in Meteoritic and Lunar Regolith Material; p 14-16
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Large areas of plastic detectors and nuclear emulsions were exposed to the primary cosmic radiation on two high-altitude balloon flights in May 1968 and September 1969. From measurements on the tracks found in the scanning of the plastic detectors, events with charges Z greater than 50 were selected, and these data were consolidated with those from our earlier flights. Several conclusions can be drawn from the observed charge spectrum. The detection of trans-bismuth nuclei confirms earlier observations of these particles in the cosmic rays. However, no trans-uranium particles were observed. Detailed features of the charge spectrum cannot be explained by nuclei from r-process nucleosynthesis alone. Although the addition of particles following s-process abundances yields improved agreement, the spectrum appears more complicated than would result from a simple combination of r- and s-process abundances with identical propagation histories.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Physical Review D - Particles and Fields; vol. 8
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The results of two flights conducted in Texas in September 1968 are reported, giving attention to experimental details, the charge spectrum, and the primary flux of very very heavy cosmic rays. Considerable interest is attached to the observation of uranium, thorium, and transuranic nuclei in the cosmic radiation. It is found that the relative abundances of the charge groups in the ranges from 35 to 40 and from 41 to 50 deviate significantly from solar system abundances.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Physical Review D - Particles and Fields; vol. 8
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 77; Nov. 1
    Format: text
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  • 9
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Particle track measurements have been reported for 25 (5 percent) of the regolith breccias in the collection; they have been reported for 16 breccias (30 percent) in the reference suite. The most frequently reported measurement for these 25 breccias is the maximum surface exposure age of the compacted rock (48 percent of the published breccia measurements). Information on the nature of the precompaction regolith is given for 9 rocks (36 percent) and on the nature of the compaction event for 6 rocks (24 percent). Most of the breccias appear to have simple post-compaction surface exposure histories (89 percent). From the few track density frequency distributions (7) that are available and inferring from the low exposure ages of these rocks (75 percent were younger than 10 to the 6th years), it appears that most of these breccias are amenable to studies which separate the contemporary surface exposure age from information about the precompaction regolith. If the number of immature-submature precompaction soils (6 out of 10 of the breccias for which appropriate data are available) represents many regolith breccias, then we can infer that regolith breccias may sample the deeper, less reworked materials in the lunar soil and compliment the samples available from the returned cores.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Earth, Moon, and Planets (ISSN 0167-9295); 31; 221-227
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objective of this study was to determine whether or not cluster particles are sufficiently homogeneous to enable observations from one fragment of the cluster to be extrapolated to the entire cluster. We report on the results of a consortium study of the fragments of a large cluster particle. Multiple fragments from one large cluster were distributed to several research groups and were subjected to a variety of mineralogical and chemical analyses including: SEM, TEM, ion probe, SXRF, noble gas measurements, and microprobe laser mass spectrometry of individual fragments.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z; p 1393-1394
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