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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 78; Oct. 10
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-10-29
    Description: The Wallula fault zone is an integral feature of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, an ~500-km-long topographic lineament oblique to the Cascadia plate boundary, extending from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, to Walla Walla, Washington. The structure and past earthquake activity of the Wallula fault zone are important because of nearby infrastructure, and also because the fault zone defines part of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in south-central Washington and suggests that the Olympic-Wallowa lineament may have a structural origin. We used aeromagnetic and ground magnetic data to locate the trace of the Wallula fault zone in the subsurface and map a quarry exposure of the Wallula fault zone near Finley, Washington, to investigate past earthquakes along the fault. We mapped three main packages of rocks and unconsolidated sediments in an ~10-m-high quarry exposure. Our mapping suggests at least three late Pleistocene earthquakes with surface rupture, and an episode of liquefaction in the Holocene along the Wallula fault zone. Faint striae on the master fault surface are subhorizontal and suggest reverse dextral oblique motion for these earthquakes, consistent with dextral offset on the Wallula fault zone inferred from offset aeromagnetic anomalies associated with ca. 8.5 Ma basalt dikes. Magnetic surveys show that the Wallula fault actually lies 350 m to the southwest of the trace shown on published maps, passes directly through deformed late Pleistocene or younger deposits exposed at Finley quarry, and extends uninterrupted over 120 km.
    Print ISSN: 0016-7606
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-07-26
    Description: In 2001, a rare swarm of small, shallow earthquakes beneath the city of Spokane, Washington, caused ground shaking as well as audible booms over a five-month period. Subsequent Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data analysis revealed an area of surface uplift in the vicinity of the earthquake swarm. To investigate the potential faults that may have caused both the earthquakes and the topographic uplift, we collected ~3 km of high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles to image the upper-source region of the swarm. The two profiles reveal a complex deformational pattern within Quaternary alluvial, fluvial, and flood deposits, underlain by Tertiary basalts and basin sediments. At least 100 m of arching on a basalt surface in the upper 500 m is interpreted from both the seismic profiles and magnetic modeling. Two west-dipping faults deform Quaternary sediments and project to the surface near the location of the Spokane fault defined from modeling of the InSAR data.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2002-06-01
    Description: The Seattle fault, a large, seismically active, east-west-striking fault zone under Seattle, is the best-studied fault within the tectonically active Puget Lowland in western Washington, yet its subsurface geometry and evolution are not well constrained. We combine several analysis and modeling approaches to study the fault geometry and evolution, including depth-converted, deep-seismic-reflection images, P-wave-velocity field, gravity data, elastic modeling of shoreline uplift from a late Holocene earthquake, and kinematic fault restoration. We propose that the Seattle thrust or reverse fault is accompanied by a shallow, antithetic reverse fault that emerges south of the main fault. The wedge enclosed by the two faults is subject to an enhanced uplift, as indicated by the boxcar shape of the shoreline uplift from the last major earthquake on the fault zone. The Seattle Basin is interpreted as a flexural basin at the footwall of the Seattle fault zone. Basin stratigraphy and the regional tectonic history lead us to suggest that the Seattle fault zone initiated as a reverse fault during the middle Miocene, concurrently with changes in the regional stress field, to absorb some of the north-south shortening of the Cascadia forearc. Kingston Arch, 30 km north of the Seattle fault zone, is interpreted as a more recent disruption arising within the basin, probably due to the development of a blind reverse fault.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-05-13
    Description: Deep, episodic slow slip on the Cascadia subduction megathrust of western North America is accompanied by low-frequency tremor in a zone of high fluid pressure between 30 and 40 km depth. Tremor density (tremor epicenters per square kilometer) varies along strike, and lower tremor density statistically correlates with upper plate faults that accommodate northward motion and rotation of forearc blocks. Upper plate earthquakes occur to 35 km depth beneath the faults. We suggest that the faults extend to the overpressured megathrust, where they provide fracture pathways for fluid escape into the upper plate. This locally reduces megathrust fluid pressure and tremor occurrence beneath the faults. Damping of tremor and related slow slip caused by fluid escape could affect fault properties of the megathrust, possibly influencing the behavior of great earthquakes.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-08-01
    Description: We present evidence that the Seattle fault zone of Washington State extends to the west edge of the Puget Lowland and is kinematically linked to active faults that border the Olympic Massif, including the Saddle Mountain deformation zone. Newly acquired high-resolution seismic reflection and marine magnetic data suggest that the Seattle fault zone extends west beyond the Seattle Basin to form a 〉100-km-long active fault zone. We provide evidence for a strain transfer zone, expressed as a broad set of faults and folds connecting the Seattle and Saddle Mountain deformation zones near Hood Canal. This connection provides an explanation for the apparent synchroneity of M7 earthquakes on the two fault systems ~1100 yr ago. We redefine the boundary of the Tacoma Basin to include the previously termed Dewatto basin and show that the Tacoma fault, the southern part of which is a backthrust of the Seattle fault zone, links with a previously unidentified fault along the western margin of the Seattle uplift. We model this north-south fault, termed the Dewatto fault, along the western margin of the Seattle uplift as a low-angle thrust that initiated with exhumation of the Olympic Massif and today accommodates north-directed motion. The Tacoma and Dewatto faults likely control both the southern and western boundaries of the Seattle uplift. The inferred strain transfer zone linking the Seattle fault zone and Saddle Mountain deformation zone defines the northern margin of the Tacoma Basin, and the Saddle Mountain deformation zone forms the northwestern boundary of the Tacoma Basin. Our observations and model suggest that the western portions of the Seattle fault zone and Tacoma fault are complex, require temporal variations in principal strain directions, and cannot be modeled as a simple thrust and/or backthrust system.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2005-08-01
    Description: High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys over forearc basins can detect faults and folds in weakly magnetized sediments, thus providing geologic constraints on tectonic evolution and improved understanding of seismic hazards in convergent-margin settings. Puget Sound, Washington, and Cook Inlet, Alaska, provide two case histories. In each lowland region, shallow-source magnetic anomalies are related to active folds and/or faults. Mapping these structures is critical for understanding seismic hazards that face the urban regions of Seattle, Washington, and Anchorage, Alaska. Similarities in aeromagnetic anomaly patterns and magnetic stratigraphy between the two regions suggest that we can expect the aeromagnetic method to yield useful structural information that may contribute to earth-hazard and energy resource investigations in other forearc basins. ©2005 The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="http://doi.org/10.1186/BF03351857" target="_blank"〉〈img src="http://bib.telegrafenberg.de/typo3temp/pics/f2f773b55e.png" border="0"〉〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 1343-8832
    Electronic ISSN: 1880-5981
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-10-08
    Description: Gravity and magnetic anomalies suggest that the Olympia structure beneath the southern Puget Lowland (western Washington State, U.S.) vertically displaces Eocene Crescent Formation strata. Northeast of the Olympia structure, middle Eocene Crescent Formation is beneath 4–6 km of Paleogene–Neogene and Quaternary strata of the Tacoma basin, whereas the Crescent Formation is exposed at the surface immediately to the south. Although numerous marine seismic reflection profiles have been acquired near the surface location of the Olympia structure as defined by potential field anomalies, its tectonic character remains enigmatic, in part because inlets of southern Puget Sound are too shallow for the collection of deep-penetration marine seismic profiles across the geophysical anomalies. To supplement existing shallow-marine data near the structure, we acquired 14.6 km of land-based seismic reflection data along a profile that extends from Crescent Formation exposed in the Black Hills northward across the projected surface location of the Olympia structure. The reflection seismic data image the Crescent bedrock surface to ~1 km depth beneath the southern Tacoma basin and reveal the dip on this surface to be no greater than ~10°. Although regional potential field data show a strong linear trend for the Olympia structure that implies folding over a blind thrust and/or bedrock juxtaposed against a weakly to nonmagnetic sediment section, high-resolution magnetic anomaly analysis along the land-based profile suggests that the structure is more complex. Overall, seismic and potential-field profiles presented in this study identify only minor shallow faulting within the projected surface location of the Olympia structure. We suggest that the mapped trace of the Olympia structure along the northern flank of the Black Hills, at least within the study area, is constrained by juxtaposed normal and reversely magnetized Crescent Formation units and minor tectonic deformation of Crescent Formation bedrock.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-04-03
    Description: The Tualatin basin, west of Portland (Oregon, USA), coincides with a 110 mGal gravity low along the Puget-Willamette lowland. New gravity measurements (n = 3000) reveal a three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface geometry suggesting early development as a fault-bounded pull-apart basin. A strong northwest-trending gravity gradient coincides with the Gales Creek fault, which forms the southwestern boundary of the Tualatin basin. Faults along the northeastern margin in the Portland Hills and the northeast-trending Sherwood fault along the southeastern basin margin are also associated with gravity gradients, but of smaller magnitude. The gravity low reflects the large density contrast between basin fill and the mafic crust of the Siletz terrane composing basement. Inversions of gravity data indicate that the Tualatin basin is ~6 km deep, therefore 6 times deeper than the 1 km maximum depth of the Miocene Columba River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the basin, implying that the basin contains several kilometers of low-density pre-CRBG sediments and so formed primarily before the 15 Ma emplacement of the CRBG. The shape of the basin and the location of parallel, linear basin-bounding faults along the southwest and northeast margins suggest that the Tualatin basin originated as a pull-apart rhombochasm. Pre-CRBG extension in the Tualatin basin is consistent with an episode of late Eocene extension documented elsewhere in the Coast Ranges. The present fold and thrust geometry of the Tualatin basin, the result of Neogene compression, is superimposed on the ancestral pull-apart basin. The present 3-D basin geometry may imply stronger ground shaking along basin edges, particularly along the concealed northeast edge of the Tualatin basin beneath the greater Portland area.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-08-01
    Description: Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ~1500 shallow (~1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site, Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km 2 area near Wooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake ( M  3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ~50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface 〈200 m below the surface. The earthquake swarm and the thrust and bedding-plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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