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  • 1
    Call number: AWI G5-15-0026
    In: Developments in paleoenvironmental research
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Using Natural Archives to Track Sources and Long-Term Trends of Pollution: An Introduction / Jules M. Blais, Michael R. Rosen and John P. Smol. - The Influence of Hydrology on Lacustrine Sediment Contaminant Records / Michael R. Rosen. - The Stability of Metal Profiles in Freshwater and Marine Sediments / P. M. Outridge and F. Wang. - Calculating Rates and Dates and Interpreting Contaminant Profiles in Biomixed Sediments / Zou Zou A. Kuzyk, Robie W. Macdonald and Sophia C. Johannessen. - Contaminants in Marine Sedimentary Deposits from Coal Fly Ash During the Latest Permian Extinction / Hamed Sanei, Stephen E. Grasby and Benoit Beauchamp. - Lake Sediment Records of Preindustrial Metal Pollution / Colin A. Cooke and Richard Bindler. - Lacustrine Archives of Metals from Mining and Other Industrial Activities - A Geochemical Approach / John Boyle, Richard Chiverrell and Dan Schillereff. - Organic Pollutants in Sediment Core Archives / Jennifer B. Korosi, Wenhan Cheng and Jules M. Blais. - Environmental Archives of Contaminant Particles / Neil L. Rose and Meri Ruppel. - Tracking Long-range Atmospheric Transport of Contaminants in Arctic Regions Using Lake Sediments / Jane Kirk and Amber Gleason. - Tracking Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Trace Metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Organohalogen Compounds Using Lake Sediments of Mountain Regions / Jordi Catalan. - Using Peat Records as Natural Archives of Past Atmospheric Metal Deposition / Sophia V. Hansson, Richard Bindler and François De Vleeschouwer. - Historical Contaminant Records from Sclerochronological Archives / Jessica Carilli, Branwen Williams, Bernd R. Schöne, Richard A. Krause and Stewart J. Fallon. - Contaminant Records in Ice Cores / Paolo Gabrielli and Paul Vallelonga. - Use of Catalogued Long-term Biological Collections and Samples for Determining Changes in Contaminant Exposure to Organisms / Linda M. Campbell and Paul E. Drevnick. - Tracking Contaminant Transport From Biovectors / Roland Kallenborn and Jules M. Blais. - Using Natural Archives to Track Sources and Long-Term Trends of Pollution: Some Final Thoughts and Suggestions for Future Directions / Jules M. Blais, Michael R. Rosen and John P. Smol. - Index.
    Description / Table of Contents: The human footprint on the global environment now touches every corner of the world. This book explores the myriad ways that environmental archives can be used to study the distribution and long-term trajectories of chemical contaminants. The volume first focuses on reviews that examine the integrity of the historic record, including factors related to hydrology, post-depositional diffusion, and mixing processes. This is followed by a series of chapters dealing with the diverse archives and methodologies available for long-term studies of environmental pollution, such as the use of sediments, ice cores, sclerochronology, and museum specimens.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XVI, 509 p.
    ISBN: 9789401795401
    Series Statement: Developments in paleoenvironmental research 18
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: catchment export ; catchment retention ; metals ; sediments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Although catchments have been implicated as an important source of metals to lakes, the catchment contribution of different metals is poorly known, and the anthropogenic contribution is not known at all. We determine the anthropogenic lake sediment burdens of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Pb for several Quebec and Ontario lakes, not subject to point source loading, to obtain estimates of atmospheric loading and inputs from terrestrial sources. To do this, we first collected multiple cores across 11 lake basins to estimate the whole-lake Pb burdens. As the whole-lake Pb burdens did not differ among lakes that spanned over two orders of magnitude in drainage ratios (drainage basin area/lake area), we conclude that catchment retention of anthropogenic Pb is complete. The anthropogenic Pb burdens were then used as a correction for focusing for the other metals. Among the metals, Cr and Ni were the most readily exported from drainage basins, followed by Cu. Zn showed no increase with drainage ratio, indicating Zn to be effectively retained by catchments. The export coefficients of the Pb corrected metals correlate well with ocean residence time, revealing a similar metal sorption/precipitation sequence in both soils and oceans. Sediment metal burdens provide a relatively easy way to obtain not only metal export coefficients from drainage basins, but also the atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic metals (e.g. Pb: S.E. Quebec, 950 mg*m−2: Laurentians, north of Montreal, 420 mg*m−2). The export coefficients are not only simpler to obtain than by mass balance measurements, but, in addition, identify the anthropogenic component.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Sedimentation patterns in nine lake basins were examined where catchments were either clearcut, burned in recent history, or where there has been no recorded disturbance and the catchments consist of mature forests. Pronounced declines in sedimentation rates were observed in eight of eleven cores after 1980, in reference, clearcut, and burn lakes. The degree of change was positively correlated with the drainage ratio (catchment area: lake area), but was unrelated to land use history. The decline in sedimentation rates after 1980 coincide with a 60% decrease in catchment runoff and precipitation measured over the same time interval at the nearby Experimental Lakes Area. These results indicate that climatic changes over the past 20 years have had a greater effect on catchment erosion than either clearcutting or fire.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: metals ; Noril'sk ; sediments ; Siberia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Sediment and water chemistry data were collected from ten lakes within a 110 km radius of Noril'sk in Siberia, the largest smelting complex in the world. Metals showing the most pronounced increase in enrichment near the smelters were Cu, Ni, Co, Ba and Zn. Cu and Ni appear to be as or more enriched in lake sediments around Noril'sk compared with levels previously reported for other locations. Although SO4 concentrations were highly elevated in the areas closest to the smelting complex, lake water pH remained elevated due to high concentrations of base cations in the waters. Sediment mercury enrichment was high in sediments near the smelting complex, but not more so than in other parts of the Arctic, suggesting that Hg either is not a major smelting product at Noril'sk, or that Hg is transported greater distances than other metals due to its longer atmospheric residence time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Keywords: lead ; pollution ; Ontario ; Quebec ; lakes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The isotopic composition of lead pollution in the environment provides information as to the source of emission. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio for Canadian industrial emissions (1.153±0.005) is significantly less than U.S. industrial emissions (1.213±0.008) making it possible to determine the relative contributions of emissions from both countries within Eastern North America by means of a simple isotopic mixing model. Profundal sediments in lakes chronicle contaminant inputs and are therefore useful monitors of environmental pollution. Surface sediment from 32 sediment cores across Quebec and Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 206Pb/207Pb to ascertain the relative proportions of Pb emission from Canada and the U.S.A. Data show that U.S. contributions to the total lead burden in surficial sediments across much of southern Quebec and Ontario are often in excess of 50%. Local sources were particularly important in the Eastern Township region of Quebec which lies 200 km south east of the city of Montreal. The results are discussed in relation to the major sources of industrial lead emissions in North America.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0417
    Keywords: constant initial concentration ; constant rate of supply ; 210Pb dating ; sediments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We used sediment chronology data from fourteen published studies of lake cores across much of North America and Scandinavia in order to make a large scale comparison of the different dating techniques. The uncertainty of210Pb derived dates was determined using common sediment event markers: the stable Pb rise, the137Cs rise, and theAmbrosia pollen rise. For all data combined, the 95% confidence intervals for the stable Pb rise and theAmbrosia rise, were approximately 30 years. These 95% confidence intervals are slightly higher than those derived by First-Order Error analysis performed by others on210Pb derived dates. When comparing the concordance of two210Pb models (CRS and CIC) against markers of known history, we found that the CRS model dates (constant rate of supply) had consistently better agreement than the CIC model dates (constant initial concentration). Major discrepancies between137Cs and210Pb were common, but were consistently more severe in sediments of soft water lakes pointing to an inability of sediments with low mineral content to ‘immobilize’ Cs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of paleolimnology 18 (1997), S. 211-212 
    ISSN: 1573-0417
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Persistent, semi-volatile organochlorine compounds, including toxic industrial pollutants and agricultural pesticides, are found everywhere on Earth, including in pristine polar and near-polar locations. Higher than expected occurrences of these compounds in remote regions are the result of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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