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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-06-10
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 33(1), (2019): 15-36, doi:10.1029/2018GB005985.
    Description: Better constraints on the magnitude of particulate export and the residence times of trace elements are required to understand marine food web dynamics, track the transport of anthropogenic trace metals in the ocean, and improve global climate models. While prior studies have been successful in constructing basin‐scale budgets of elements like carbon in the upper ocean, the cycling of particulate trace metals is poorly understood. The 238U‐234Th method is used here with data from the GP‐16 GEOTRACES transect to investigate the upper ocean processes controlling the particulate export of cadmium, cobalt, and manganese in the southeastern Pacific. Patterns in the flux data indicated that particulate cadmium and cobalt behave similarly to particulate phosphorus and organic carbon, with the highest export in the productive coastal region and decreasing flux with depth due to remineralization. The export of manganese was influenced by redox conditions at the low oxygen coastal stations and by precipitation and/or scavenging elsewhere. Residence times with respect to export (total inventory divided by particulate flux) for phosphorus, cadmium, cobalt, and manganese in the upper 100 and 200 m were determined to be on the order of months to years. These GEOTRACES‐based synthesis efforts, combining a host of concentration and tracer data with unprecedented resolution, will help to close the oceanic budgets of trace metals.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (OCE‐1232669 and OCE‐1518110), and Erin Black was also funded by a NASA Earth and Space Science Graduate Fellowship (NNX13AP31H). The authors would like to thank the captain, crew, and scientists aboard the R/V Thomas G. Thompson. A special thanks to two anonymous reviewers and Virginie Sanial for providing the additional 228Ra‐based estimates for Cd. All original data have been made available in either the supporting information or through BCO‐DMO (see Website and Database References).
    Description: 2019-06-10
    Keywords: thorium ; export ; trace metals ; residence time
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-08-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Chemical Geology 493 (2018): 210-223, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2018.05.040.
    Description: The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and multi-laboratory data comparisons at crossover stations. The IDP2017 consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 450 TEIs as well as standard hydrographic parameters, and (2) the eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas providing an on-line atlas that includes more than 590 section plots and 130 animated 3D scenes. The digital data are provided in several formats, including ASCII, Excel spreadsheet, netCDF, and Ocean Data View collection. Users can download the full data packages or make their own custom selections with a new on-line data extraction service. In addition to the actual data values, the IDP2017 also contains data quality flags and 1-σ data error values where available. Quality flags and error values are useful for data filtering and for statistical analysis. Metadata about data originators, analytical methods and original publications related to the data are linked in an easily accessible way. The eGEOTRACES Electronic Atlas is the visual representation of the IDP2017 as section plots and rotating 3D scenes. The basin-wide 3D scenes combine data from many cruises and provide quick overviews of large-scale tracer distributions. These 3D scenes provide geographical and bathymetric context that is crucial for the interpretation and assessment of tracer plumes near ocean margins or along ridges. The IDP2017 is the result of a truly international effort involving 326 researchers from 25 countries. This publication provides the critical reference for unpublished data, as well as for studies that make use of a large cross-section of data from the IDP2017. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Conway GEOTRACES - edited by Tim M. Conway, Tristan Horner, Yves Plancherel, and Aridane G. González.
    Description: We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) through grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, including grants OCE-0608600, OCE-0938349, OCE-1243377, and OCE-1546580. Financial support was also provided by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the Ministry of Earth Science of India, the Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, l'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées Toulouse, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, the Kiel Excellence Cluster The Future Ocean, the Swedish Museum of Natural History, The University of Tokyo, The University of British Columbia, The Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, the GEOMAR-Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, and the Alfred Wegener Institute.
    Keywords: GEOTRACES ; Trace elements ; Isotopes ; Electronic atlas ; IDP2017
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
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    Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union
    Publication Date: 2016-09-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Biogeosciences 11 (2014): 5123-5137, doi:10.5194/bg-11-5123-2014.
    Description: Quantifying the amount of cesium incorporated into marine sediments as a result of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has proven challenging due to the limited multi-core sampling from within the 30 km zone around the facility; the inherent spatial heterogeneities in ocean sediments; and the potential for inventory fluctuations due to physical, biological, and chemical processes. Using 210Pb, 234Th, 137Cs, and 134Cs profiles from 20 sediment cores, coastal sediment inventories were reevaluated. A 137Cs sediment inventory of 100 ± 50 TBq was found for an area of 55 000 km2 using cores from this study and a total of 130 ± 60 TBq using an additional 181 samples. These inventories represent less than 1% of the estimated 15–30 PBq of cesium released during the FDNPP disaster. The time needed for surface sediment activities (0 to 3 cm) at the 20 locations to be reduced by 50% via sediment mixing was estimated to range from 0.4 to 26 yr. Due to the observed variability in mixing rates, grain size, and inventories, additional cores are needed to improve these estimates and capture the full extent of cesium penetration into the shallow coastal sediments, which was deeper than 14 cm for all cores retrieved from water depths less than 150 m.
    Description: The authors would also like to acknowledge the support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Deerbrook Charitable Trust, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-23
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2017. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marine Chemistry 201 (2018): 35-50, doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2017.06.009.
    Description: Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are thought to be regions of decreased carbon attenuation in the upper ocean with a biological pump that could deliver a greater percentage of exported carbon to the mesopelagic relative to surrounding waters. However, much is still unknown about carbon cycling through these zones and the areas of extreme oxygen minima (nM O2) or oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) within the OMZs. Paired sampling for 234Th (t½ ~24.1 days) and particulate organic carbon (POC) was performed along a zonal transect between 77° W and 152° W during the U.S. GEOTRACES Southeastern Tropical Pacific campaign in 2013 in order to constrain the magnitude of carbon export and remineralization through the Peruvian OMZ. POC export varied by an order of magnitude from the coast to 152° W, reflecting a decrease in POC:234Th ratios (〉51 μm) with distance offshore and the influence of upwelling at the coast. Modeling indicated that 234Th fluxes could be underestimated at coastal stations by up to 4-fold without adjustment for the impact of upwelling, which in turn would produce much lower carbon export estimates. Low carbon Export:NPP ratios (〈0.15) at the base of the euphotic zone (Ez) in the gyre support previous findings of inefficient surface export via the biological pump in the southeastern tropical Pacific. A broad remineralization feature beginning at Ez was observed across 〉7500 km that resulted in, on average, 3% of the POC exported from the euphotic zone reaching 100 m below Ez. Although the highest percentages (〉10%) of total exported POC at 100 m below Ez were observed in the coastal ODZ region, the observed remineralization was also most pronounced these stations. While an average of 75% of the carbon export from the euphotic zone remained at Ez +100 m in the gyre, a range of 10% to 50% was observed at ODZ stations, reflecting increased attenuation. Local subsurface minima in light transmission and maxima in fluorescence were observed in the regions of greatest remineralization at the upper ODZ boundary, suggesting that complex bacterial community dynamics play a role in increased attenuation through these zones. With ODZs and OMZs predicted to grow worldwide with climate change, these areas require further large-scale and seasonal studies to assess the permanency of these attenuation features and the impact of high Gyre and lower ODZ transfer of POC on the overall efficiency of carbon export in the Pacific.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (OCE-1232669) and E. Black was also funded by a NASA Earth and Space Science Graduate Fellowship (NNX13AP31H).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 5
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    Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution February 2018.
    Description: The biological carbon pump (BCP) helps to moderate atmospheric carbon dioxide levels by bringing carbon to the deep ocean, where it can be sequestered on timescales of centuries to millennia. Climate change is predicted to decrease the efficiency of the global BCP, however, the magnitude and timescale of this shift is largely uncertain and will likely impact some areas of the global ocean more significantly than others. Therefore, it is imperative that we (1) accurately quantify surface export and remineralization of particulate organic carbon (POC) via the BCP over large regions of the global ocean, (2) examine the factors controlling these POC fluxes and their variability, which includes the cycling of biologically-relevant trace metals, and (3) establish if and how the BCP is changing over time. This thesis focuses on addressing various aspects of these objectives using the 234Th-238U method across basin-scale GEOTRACES transects. First, the export and remineralization of POC were examined across large gradients in productivity, upwelling, community structure, and dissolved oxygen in the southeastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Although low oxygen zones are traditionally thought to have decreased POC flux attenuation relative to other regions of the global ocean and the low oxygen Pacific locations followed this pattern, regions that were functionally anoxic had enhanced attenuation in the upper 400 m. Second, trace metal export and remineralization were quantified across the Pacific transect. Because many trace metals are necessary for the metabolic functions of marine organisms and can co-limit marine productivity, the controls on the cycling of trace metals in the upper ocean were examined. Lastly, POC export was determined across two transects in the Western Arctic Ocean, where light and nutrient availability drive the biological pump. Upper ocean export estimates in the central basin did not reflect a substantial change in the biological pump compared to studies from the last three decades, however, an extensive maximum in 234Th relative to 238U deeper in the water column indicated that rapid vertical transport had occurred, which could suggest a more efficient biological pump in the Arctic Ocean.
    Description: I was funded under the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program grant (NNX13AP31H) for three years. I was also funded for work on the U.S. Pacific and Arctic GEOTRACES campaigns under two National Science Foundation grants (OCE-1232669 and OCE- 1458305). The MIT Henry G. Houghton Fund provided support for the purchase of computers and textbooks and the MIT Scurlock Fund allowed for my travel to Bermuda for cruise training. WHOI Academic Programs supplemented the aforementioned funding and also provided additional support for travel to conferences.
    Keywords: Carbon ; Climatic changes ; Ocean ; Thomas G. Thompson (Ship) Cruise TN303
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Thesis
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 123 (2018): 4853-4873, doi:10.1029/2018JC013888.
    Description: The first full transarctic section of 228Ra in surface waters measured during GEOTRACES cruises PS94 and HLY1502 (2015) shows a consistent distribution with maximum activities in the transpolar drift. Activities in the central Arctic have increased from 2007 through 2011 to 2015. The increased 228Ra input is attributed to stronger wave action on shelves resulting from a longer ice‐free season. A concomitant decrease in the 228Th/228Ra ratio likely results from more rapid transit of surface waters depleted in 228Th by scavenging over the shelf. The 228Ra activities observed in intermediate waters (〈1,500 m) in the Amundsen Basin are explained by ventilation with shelf water on a time scale of about 15–18 years, in good agreement with estimates based on SF6 and 129I/236U. The 228Th excess below the mixed layer up to 1,500 m depth can complement 234Th and 210Po as tracers of export production, after correction for the inherent excess resulting from the similarity of 228Ra and 228Th decay times. We show with a Th/Ra profile model that the 228Th/228Ra ratio below 1,500 m is inappropriate for this purpose because it is a delicate balance between horizontal supply of 228Ra and vertical flux of particulate 228Th. The accumulation of 226Ra in the deep Makarov Basin is not associated with an accumulation of Ba and can therefore be attributed to supply from decay of 230Th in the bottom sediment. We estimate a ventilation time of 480 years for the deep Makarov‐Canada Basin, in good agreement with previous estimates using other tracers.
    Description: U.S. National Science Foundation Grant Numbers: OCE‐1458305, OCE‐1458424; US NSF Grant Number: OCE‐1433922
    Keywords: Radium‐228 ; Thorium‐228 ; Arctic Ocean ; Transpolar drift ; GEOTRACES
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-05-22
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 32(12), (2019): 1738-1758, doi:10.1029/2018GB005994.
    Description: Sinking particles strongly regulate the distribution of reactive chemical substances in the ocean, including particulate organic carbon and other elements (e.g., P, Cd, Mn, Cu, Co, Fe, Al, and 232Th). Yet, the sinking fluxes of trace elements have not been well described in the global ocean. The U.S. GEOTRACES campaign in the North Atlantic (GA03) offers the first data set in which the sinking flux of carbon and trace elements can be derived using four different radionuclide pairs (238U:234Th ;210Pb:210Po; 228Ra:228Th; and 234U:230Th) at stations co‐located with sediment trap fluxes for comparison. Particulate organic carbon, particulate P, and particulate Cd fluxes all decrease sharply with depth below the euphotic zone. Particulate Mn, Cu, and Co flux profiles display mixed behavior, some cases reflecting biotic remineralization, and other cases showing increased flux with depth. The latter may be related to either lateral input of lithogenic material or increased scavenging onto particles. Lastly, particulate Fe fluxes resemble fluxes of Al and 232Th, which all have increasing flux with depth, indicating a dominance of lithogenic flux at depth by resuspended sediment transported laterally to the study site. In comparing flux estimates derived using different isotope pairs, differences result from different timescales of integration and particle size fractionation effects. The range in flux estimates produced by different methods provides a robust constraint on the true removal fluxes, taking into consideration the independent uncertainties associated with each method. These estimates will be valuable targets for biogeochemical modeling and may also offer insight into particle sinking processes.
    Description: This study grew out of a synthesis workshop at the Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University in August 2016. This workshop was sponsored by the U.S. GEOTRACES Project Office (NSF 1536294) and the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCP) Project Office (NSF 1558412 and NASA NNX17AB17G). The U.S. National Science Foundation supported all of the analytical work on GA03. Kuanbo Zhou measured 228Th in the large size class particles (NSF 0925158 to WHOI). NSF 1061128 to Stony Brook University supported the BaRFlux project, for which Chistina Heilbrun is acknowledged for laboratory and field work. The lead author acknowledges support from a start‐up grant from the University of Southern Mississippi. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their constructive comments. All GEOTRACES GA03 data used in this study are accessible through the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (http://data.bco‐dmo.org/jg/dir/BCO/GEOTRACES/NorthAtlanticTransect/), and derived parameters are reported in the supporting information.
    Description: 2019-05-22
    Keywords: biological carbon pump ; trace metals ; North Atlantic ; export ; GEOTRACES
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-01
    Description: Hydrothermal activity in the deep ocean generates plumes of metal-rich particles capable of removing certain trace elements from seawater by adsorption and sedimentation. This removal process, known as scavenging, can be probed using the insoluble radiogenic isotopes of thorium (Th), which are produced at a known rate in the water column via the decay of soluble uranium (234Th, 230Th) and radium (228Th) isotopes. We present dissolved and particulate measurements of these three thorium isotopes in a hydrothermal plume observed in the southeast Pacific Ocean on the GEOTRACES GP16 section. Since their half-lives vary from days (234Th) to years (228Th) to tens of thousands of years (230Th), the combination of their signals can be used to understand scavenging processes occurring on a wide range of timescales. Scavenging is a multi-step process involving adsorption and desorption onto particles, followed by particle aggregation, sinking, and eventual sedimentation. We use thorium isotopes to study how hydrothermal activity affects these steps. The rate constants for net adsorption of 234Th determined here are comparable to previous estimates from hydrothermal plumes in the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. The partitioning of 234Th and 230Th between large and small particles is more similar in the hydrothermal plume than above it, indicating faster aggregation of particles within the hydrothermal plume at stations nearby the East Pacific Rise than in waters outside the plume. In addition to rapid scavenging and aggregation near the ridge axis, we also infer continuous off-axis scavenging from observations and modeling of 228Th/228Ra activity ratios. The degree of depletion of the three thorium isotopes increases in order of half-life, with total 234Th activity close to that of its parent 238U, but 230Th showing nearly 70% depletion compared to expected values from reversible scavenging. By modeling the variations in depletion for the different isotopes, we show that much of the 230Th removal is inherited from scavenging events happening long before the most recent hydrothermal inputs.
    Print ISSN: 0012-821X
    Electronic ISSN: 1385-013X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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