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  • 1
    Call number: PIK N 456-05-0048
    In: Forschungsbericht
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: VIII, 118 S. : Ill., graph. Darst
    Series Statement: Forschungsbericht 2004-17
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The climate research community uses atmospheric reanalysis data sets to understand a wide range of processes and variability in the atmosphere, yet different reanalyses may give very different results for the same diagnostics. The Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP) is a coordinated activity to compare reanalysis data sets using a variety of key diagnostics. The objectives of this project are to identify differences among reanalyses and understand their underlying causes, to provide guidance on appropriate usage of various reanalysis products in scientific studies, particularly those of relevance to SPARC, and to contribute to future improvements in the reanalysis products by establishing collaborative links between reanalysis centres and data users. The project focuses predominantly on differences among reanalyses, although studies that include operational analyses and studies comparing reanalyses with observations are also included when appropriate. The emphasis is on diagnostics of the upper troposphere, stratosphere, and lower mesosphere. This paper summarizes the motivation and goals of the S-RIP activity and extensively reviews key technical aspects of the reanalysis data sets that are the focus of this activity. The special issue "The SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP)" in this journal serves to collect research with relevance to the S-RIP in preparation for the publication of the planned two (interim and full) S-RIP reports.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Anaerobiosis ; Hydraulic conductivity ; Reflection coefficient ; Root pressure probe ; Permeability ; coefficient ; Zea (root, water)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of anoxia on water and solute transport across excised roots of young maize plants (Zea mays L. cv. Tanker) grown hydroponically have been studied. With the aid of the root pressure probe, root pressure (Pr), root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr), and root permeability (Psr), and reflection (σ sr) coefficients were measured using potassium nitrate (a typical nutrient salt) and sodium nitrate (an atypical nutrient salt) as solutes. During a period of 10–15 h, anaerobic treatment (0.0–0.2 g O2·m-3 in root medium) caused a decrease of root pressure by 0.01–0.28 MPa (by 10–80% of original root pressure) after a short transient increase. For a time period of 5 h, the decrease in the stationary root pressure was not reversible. Under anaerobic conditions, roots still behaved like osmometers and were not leaky. The root hydraulic conductivity measured in osmotic experiments (osmotic solute: NaNO3) was smaller by one to two orders of magnitude than that measured in the presence of hydrostatic gradients. Both the osmotic and hydrostatic hydraulic conductivity decreased during anaerobic treatment by 28 and 44%, respectively, at a constant reflection coefficient of the solutes (σ sr=0.3−1.0). As with root pressure, changes in root permeability to water and solutes were not reversible within 5 h. Under aerobic conditions and at low external concentrations (31–59 mOsmol·kg-1), osmotic response curves were monophasic for KNO3, i.e. there was no passive uptake of solutes. Response curves became biphasic at higher concentrations (100–150 mOsmol·kg-1)- For NaNO3, response curves were biphasic at all concentrations. Presumably, this pattern was a consequence of the fact that potassium had already accumulated in the xylem. During anoxia, accumulation of potassium in the xylem was reduced, and biphasic responses were also obtained at lower potassium concentrations applied to the medium. The results are discussed in terms of a pump/leak model of the root in which anoxia affects both the active ion pumping and the permeability of the root to nutrient salts (leakage). The effects of anaerobiosis on the passive transport properties of the root (Lpr, Psr, σ sr) are in line with the recently proposed ‘composite transport model of the root’.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-06
    Description: We describe the main differences in simulations of stratospheric climate and variability by models within the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that have a model top above the stratopause and relatively fine stratospheric vertical resolution (high-top), and those that have a model top below the stratopause (low-top). Although the simulation of mean stratospheric climate by the two model ensembles is similar, the low-top model ensemble has very weak stratospheric variability on daily and interannual time scales. The frequency of major sudden stratospheric warming events is strongly underestimated by the low-top models with less than half the frequency of events observed in the reanalysis data and high-top models. The lack of stratospheric variability in the low-top models affects their stratosphere-troposphere coupling, resulting in short-lived anomalies in the Northern Annular Mode, which do not produce long-lasting tropospheric impacts, as seen in observations. The lack of stratospheric variability, however, does not appear to have any impact on the ability of the low-top models to reproduce past stratospheric temperature trends. We find little improvement in the simulation of decadal variability for the high-top models compared to the low-top, which is likely related to the fact that neither ensemble produces a realistic dynamical response to volcanic eruptions
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-02-08
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2018. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 31 (2018): 7565-7581, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0108.1.
    Description: There is mounting evidence that the width of the tropics has increased over the last few decades, but there are large differences in reported expansion rates. This is, likely, in part due to the wide variety of metrics that have been used to define the tropical width. Here we perform a systematic investigation into the relationship among nine metrics of the zonal-mean tropical width using preindustrial control and abrupt quadrupling of CO2 simulations from a suite of coupled climate models. It is shown that the latitudes of the edge of the Hadley cell, the midlatitude eddy-driven jet, the edge of the subtropical dry zones, and the Southern Hemisphere subtropical high covary interannually and exhibit similar long-term responses to a quadrupling of CO2. However, metrics based on the outgoing longwave radiation, the position of the subtropical jet, the break in the tropopause, and the Northern Hemisphere subtropical high have very weak covariations with the above metrics and/or respond differently to increases in CO2 and thus are not good indicators of the expansion of the Hadley cell or subtropical dry zone. The differing variability and responses to increases in CO2 among metrics highlights that care is needed when choosing metrics for studies of the width of the tropics and that it is important to make sure the metric used is appropriate for the specific phenomena and impacts being examined.
    Description: DW acknowledges support from NSF AGS-1403676.
    Description: 2019-02-08
    Keywords: Hadley circulation ; Hydrologic cycle ; Meridional overturning circulation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We describe the main differences in simulations of stratospheric climate and variability by models within the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) that have a model top above the stratopause and relatively fine stratospheric vertical resolution (high-top), and those that have a model top below the stratopause (low-top). Although the simulation of mean stratospheric climate by the two model ensembles is similar, the low-top model ensemble has very weak stratospheric variability on daily and interannual time scales. The frequency of major sudden stratospheric warming events is strongly underestimated by the low-top models with less than half the frequency of events observed in the reanalysis data and high-top models. The lack of stratospheric variability in the low-top models affects their stratosphere-troposphere coupling, resulting in short-lived anomalies in the Northern Annular Mode, which do not produce long-lasting tropospheric impacts, as seen in observations. The lack of stratospheric variability, however, does not appear to have any impact on the ability of the low-top models to reproduce past stratospheric temperature trends. We find little improvement in the simulation of decadal variability for the high-top models compared to the low-top, which is likely related to the fact that neither ensemble produces a realistic dynamical response to volcanic eruptions.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN9137 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres; 118; Isue 6; 2494–2505
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-08
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2019. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 32(5) (2019): 1551-1571. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0444.1.
    Description: Previous studies have documented a poleward shift in the subsiding branches of Earth’s Hadley circulation since 1979 but have disagreed on the causes of these observed changes and the ability of global climate models to capture them. This synthesis paper reexamines a number of contradictory claims in the past literature and finds that the tropical expansion indicated by modern reanalyses is within the bounds of models’ historical simulations for the period 1979–2005. Earlier conclusions that models were underestimating the observed trends relied on defining the Hadley circulation using the mass streamfunction from older reanalyses. The recent observed tropical expansion has similar magnitudes in the annual mean in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Southern Hemisphere (SH), but models suggest that the factors driving the expansion differ between the hemispheres. In the SH, increasing greenhouse gases (GHGs) and stratospheric ozone depletion contributed to tropical expansion over the late twentieth century, and if GHGs continue increasing, the SH tropical edge is projected to shift further poleward over the twenty-first century, even as stratospheric ozone concentrations recover. In the NH, the contribution of GHGs to tropical expansion is much smaller and will remain difficult to detect in a background of large natural variability, even by the end of the twenty-first century. To explain similar recent tropical expansion rates in the two hemispheres, natural variability must be taken into account. Recent coupled atmosphere–ocean variability, including the Pacific decadal oscillation, has contributed to tropical expansion. However, in models forced with observed sea surface temperatures, tropical expansion rates still vary widely because of internal atmospheric variability.
    Description: We thank Ori Adam, Nick Davis, Isaac Held, Tim Merlis, Lorenzo Polvani, and one anonymous reviewer for helpful comments and suggestions. We thank U.S. CLIVAR and the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) for funding working groups that stimulated this project. We thank all members of the working groups for helpful discussions, and the U.S. CLIVAR and ISSI offices and their sponsoring agencies (NASA,NOAA,NSF,DOE, ESA, Swiss Confederation, Swiss Academy of Sciences, and University of Bern) for supporting these groups and activities.We acknowledge WCRP’sWorking Group on CoupledModelling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups (Table 2) for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP, the U.S. DOE PCMDI provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals.
    Description: 2019-08-06
    Keywords: Hadley circulation ; Climate models ; Reanalysis data ; Multidecadal variability ; Pacific decadal oscillation ; Trends
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: JPL-CL-16-1370 , International Conference on GPS Radio Occultation (ICGPSRO); Mar 09, 2016 - Mar 11, 2016; Taipei; Taiwan, Province of China
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-11-01
    Print ISSN: 0003-0007
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0477
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-11-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-4928
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0469
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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