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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Weirauch, D; Billups, Katharina; Martin, Pamela (2008): Evolution of millennial-scale climate variability during the mid-Pleistocene. Paleoceanography, 23(3), PA3216, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007PA001584
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: We use the oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white) from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1058 in the subtropical northwestern Atlantic to construct a high-resolution (~800 year) climate record spanning the mid-Pleistocene climate transition (~410 ka to 1350 ka). We investigate whether or not millennial-scale instabilities in the proxy record are associated with the extent of continental glaciation. G. ruber d18O values display high-frequency fluctuations throughout the record, but the amplitude about mean glacial and interglacial d18O values increases at marine isotope stage (MIS) 22 (880 ka) and is highest during MIS 12. These observations support that millennial-scale climate instabilities are associated with ice sheet size. Time series analysis illustrates that these variations have significant concentration of spectral power centered on periods of ~10-12 ka and ~5 ka. The timing of these fluctuations agrees well, or coincides with, the periodicities of the second and fourth harmonics, respectively, of precessional forcing at the equator. An insolation-based origin of the millennial-scale instabilities would be independent of ice volume and explains the presence of these fluctuations before the mid-Pleistocene climate transition as well as during interglacial intervals (e.g., MIS 37 and 17). Because the amplitude of the millennial-scale variations increases during the mid-Pleistocene transition, feedback mechanisms associated with the growth of large, 100-ka-paced, polar ice sheets may be important amplifiers of regional surface water hydrographic changes.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Billups, Katharina; Schrag, Daniel P (2002): Paleotemperatures and ice volume of the past 27 Myr revisited with paired Mg/Ca and 18O/16O measurements on benthic foraminifera. Paleoceanography, 17(1), 3-1-3-11, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000PA000567
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: We explore the applicability of paired Mg/Ca and 18O/16O measurements on benthic foraminifera from Southern Ocean site 747 to paleoceanographic reconstructions on pre-Pleistocene timescales. We focus on the late Oligocene through Pleistocene (27–0 Ma) history of paleotemperatures and the evolution of the d18O values of seawater (d18Osw) at a temporal resolution of ~100–200 kyr. Absolute paleotemperature estimates depend on assumptions of how Mg/Ca ratios of seawater have changed over the past 27 Myr, but relative changes that occur on geologically brief timescales are robust. Results indicate that at the Oligocene to Miocene boundary (23.8 Ma), temperatures lag the increase in global ice-volume deduced from benthic foraminiferal d18O values, but the smaller-scale Miocene glaciations are accompanied by ocean cooling of -1°C. During the mid-Miocene phase of Antarctic ice sheet growth (~15-13 Ma), water temperatures cool by ~3°C. Unlike the benthic foraminiferal d18O values, which remain relatively constant thereafter, temperatures vary (by 3°C) and reach maxima at ~12 and ~8.5 Ma. The onset of significant Northern Hemisphere glaciation during the late Pliocene is synchronous with an ~4°C cooling at site 747. A comparison of our d18Osw curve to the Haq et al. (1987, doi:10.1126/science.235.4793.1156 ) sea level curve yields excellent agreement between sequence boundaries and times of increasing seawater 18O/16O ratios. At ~12-11 Ma in particular, when benthic foraminiferal d18O values do not support a further increase in ice volume, the d18Osw curve comes to a maximum that corresponds to a major mid-Miocene sea level regression. The agreement between the character of our Mg/Ca-based d18Osw curve and sequence stratigraphy demonstrates that benthic foramaniferal Mg/Ca ratios can be used to trace the d18Osw on pre-Pleistocene timescales despite a number of uncertainties related to poorly constrained temperature calibrations and paleoseawater Mg/Ca ratios. The Mg/Ca record also highlights that deep ocean temperatures can vary independently and unexpectedly from ice volume changes, which can lead to misinterpretations of the d18O record.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Diester-Haass, Lieselotte; Billups, Katharina; Emeis, Kay-Christian (2005): In search of the late Miocene-early Pliocene “biogenic bloom” in the Atlantic Ocean (Ocean Drilling Program Sites 982, 925, and 1088). Paleoceanography, 20(4), PA4001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001139
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: We reconstruct paleoproductivity at three sites in the Atlantic Ocean (Ocean Drilling Program Sites 982, 925, and 1088) to investigate the presence and extent of the late Miocene to early Pliocene 'biogenic bloom' from 9 to 3 Ma. Our approach involves construction of multiple records including benthic foraminiferal and CaCO3 accumulation rates, Uvigerina counts, dissolution proxies, and geochemical tracers for biogenic and detrital fluxes. This time interval also contains the so-called late Miocene carbon isotope shift, a well-known decrease in benthic foraminiferal d13C values. We find that the timing of paleoproductivity maxima differs among the three sites. At Site 982 (North Atlantic), benthic foraminifera and CaCO3 accumulation were both at a maximum at ~5 Ma, with smaller peaks at ~6 Ma. The paleoproductivity maximum was centered earlier (~6.6-6.0 Ma) in the tropical Atlantic (Site 925). In the South Atlantic (Site 1088), paleoproductivity increased even earlier, between 8.2 Ma and 6.2 Ma, and remained relatively high until ~5.4 Ma. We note that there is some overlap between the interval of maximum productivity between Sites 925 and 1088, as well as the minor productivity increase at Site 982. We conclude that the paleoproductivity results support hypotheses aiming to place the biogenic bloom into a global context of enhanced productivity. In addition, we find that at all three sites the d13C shift is accompanied by carbonate dissolution. This observation is consistent with published studies that have sought a relationship between the late Miocene carbon isotope shift and carbonate preservation.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 4
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Diester-Haass, Lieselotte; Billups, Katharina; Emeis, Kay-Christian (2006): Late Miocene carbon isotope records and marine biological productivity: Was there a (dusty) link? Paleoceanography, 21(4), PA4216, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006PA001267
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: We examine whether or not a relationship exists between the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (~7.6-6.6 Ma) and marine productivity at four sites from the Indian and Pacific Oceans (Ocean Drilling Program Sites 721, 1146, 1172, and 846). We use a multiproxy approach based on benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, elemental ratios, and dissolution indices, and we compare these data to benthic foraminiferal d13C values measured on the same samples. Although some of these sites have been targeted previously in studies of either the late Miocene/early Pliocene "biogenic bloom" (Sites 721 and 846) or the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (Site 1172), our records are the first to establish paired proxy records of carbon isotopes and paleoproductivity allowing a direct assessment of a potential link. Our results indicate that at all sites, productivity increased sometime during the d13C shift; at three sites (721, 1146, and 846), productivity increased at the beginning of the shift. The correlation coefficients derived from linear regression between micropaleontologically derived productivity and foraminiferal d13C values are relatively high during the time interval containing the late Miocene d13C shift (and statistically significant at three of the sites). Carbon flux and isotope mass balance considerations illustrate that transfer of organic matter between the terrestrial and marine reservoirs together with enhanced oceanic upwelling best approximates observed changes in carbon isotope records and paleoproductivity. We note that long-term trend in the Site 846 paleoproductivity record can be correlated to the long-term trend in the Site 848 eolian flux reconstructions of Hovan (1995, doi:10.2973/odp.proc.sr.138.132.1995) hinting at a link between strengthened wind regime and productivity during the late Miocene.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 4 datasets
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Billups, Katharina; Channell, James E T; Zachos, James C (2002): Late Oligocene to early Miocene geochronology and paleoceanography from the subantarctic South Atlantic. Paleoceanography, 17(1), 4-1-4-11, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000PA000568
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: At Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1090 on the Agulhas Ridge (subantarctic South Atlantic) benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records span the late Oligocene through the early Miocene (25~16 Ma) at a temporal resolution of ~10 kyr. In the same time interval a magnetic polarity stratigraphy can be unequivocally correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS), thereby providing secure correlation of the isotope record to the GPTS. On the basis of the isotope-magnetostratigraphic correlation we provide refined age calibration of established oxygen isotope events Mi1 through Mi2 as well as several other distinctive isotope events. Our data suggest that the d18O maximum commonly associated with the Oligocene/Miocene (O/M) boundary falls within C6Cn.2r (23.86 Ma). The d13C maximum coincides, within the temporal resolution of our record, with C6Cn.2n/r boundary and hence to the O/M boundary. Comparison of the stable isotope record from ODP Site 1090 to the orbitally tuned stable isotope record from ODP Site 929 across the O/M boundary shows that variability in the two records is very similar and can be correlated at and below the O/M boundary. Site 1090 stable isotope records also provide the first deep Southern Ocean end-member for reconstructions of circulation patterns and late Oligocene to early Miocene climate change. Comparison to previously published records suggests that basin to basin carbon isotope gradients were small or nonexistent and are inconclusive with respect to the direction of deep water flow. Oxygen isotope gradients between sites suggest that the deep Southern Ocean was cold in comparison to the North Atlantic, Indian, and the Pacific Oceans. Dominance of cold Southern Component Deep Water at Site 1090, at least until 17 Ma, suggests that relatively cold circumpolar climatic conditions prevailed during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. We believe that a relatively cold Southern Ocean reflects unrestricted circumpolar flow through the Drake Passage in agreement with bathymetric reconstructions.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 37 data points
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 60 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 15 data points
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 64 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 488 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 65 data points
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