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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 19 (1947), S. 414-415 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A method proposed for estimating the rate of bacterial mortality in aquatic environments consists in following the disappearance of radioactive tracer from the macromolecular fraction of 3H-thymidine labeled natural assemblages of bacteria. The data presented in this paper offer a further technical validation of this procedure. Application of the method to North and Mediterranean Sea, estuaries, rivers and lakes yields first order mortality constant in the range 0.008–0.06 h−1. Mortality due to grazing by protozoans retained by 2 μm filtration range from 20 to 90% of the mortality detected by the method.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5125
    Keywords: Schelde ; estuary ; phytoplankton ; bacterioplankton ; ecological models
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Since about 10 years, studies have been conducted at the University of Brussels in modelling the microbiological processes affecting biogenic substances in the Schelde estuary and its watershed. The first model, a one dimensional redox model, simulated the longitudinal distribution of oxygen, nitrate, iron and manganese in relation to the observed bacterial heterotrophic activity. A model allowing calculation of bacterial activity from data on organic discharge was coupled to this model. It was completed by a model of phytoplanktonic development within the estuary. Finally, an idealized model of the hydrographical network, based on Horton analysis, is being established in order to calculate the quality of the water at the downward boundary of the estuary. Together, all these sub-models form a general model of the ecological working of the Schelde estuary, able to predict at least the general trends of the redox state, the organic carbon, mineral nitrogen, and chlorophyll-a concentrations as a function of distance to the sea, from the knowledge of geomorphological and meteorological data, along with informations concerning the distribution of anthropogenic discharges. This model therefore provides a powerfull tool for the rational management of the Schelde estuary.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Nitrogen ; riparian retention ; river Seine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A new version of the `Riverstrahler' model has been developed for modelling riverine transfers of nitrogen from diffuse sources within the watershed, using land use data as a forcing function, together with an adjustable riparian transfer coefficient. Application of the model to the Seine river system (divided into four main sub-basins and one main branch) allows to establish a comprehensive budget of nitrogen transfers through the whole drainage network and to quantify the overall retention by riparian wetlands. According to the sub-basins, the figures indicate that 25 – 55% of the nitrogen coming from below the root-zone of agricultural land or from the aquifers is retained or eliminated before reaching surface water. The lower retention is found in areas where dense agricultural draining has been installed, thus by-passing riparian wetlands. At the scale of the Seine catchment, riparian retention represents 70 – 110 103 tonN y-1, while in-stream retention accounts for only 24–32 103 tonN y-1. The data suggest that landscape management, like restoration of efficient riparian systems in areas where they have been suppressed or by-passed, might be an efficient alternative or complimentary strategy for reducing nitrate contamination of surface water, with respect to tertiary treatment of point wastewater discharges.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: anthropogenic ; atmospheric deposition ; eutrophication ; fertilizer ; nitrogen ; nitrogen budget ; nitrogen fixation ; N:P ratio ; phosphorus ; pristine ; rivers ; temperate ; tropical
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr−1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr−1 . On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km−2 yr−1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the major control over river nitrogen export in some regions such as the northeastern U.S. Using data from relatively pristine areas as an index of change, we estimate that riverine nitrogen fluxes in many of the temperate regions have increased from pre-industrial times by 2 to 20 fold, although some regions such as northern Canada are relatively unchanged. Fluxes from the most disturbed region, the North Sea drainages, have increased by 6 to 20 fold. Fluxes from the Amazon basin are also at least 2 to 5 fold greater than estimated fluxes from undisturbed temperate-zone regions, despite low population density and low inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen to the region. This suggests that natural riverine nitrogen fluxes in the tropics may be significantly greater than in the temperate zone. However, deforestation may be contributing to the tropical fluxes. In either case, projected increases in fertilizer use and atmospheric deposition in the coming decades are likely to cause dramatic increases in nitrogen loading to many tropical river systems.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: continental shelf ; estuaries ; mass balance ; nitrogen ; North Atlantic ; nutrient budget ; phosphorus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Five large rivers that discharge on the western North Atlantic continental shelf carry about 45% of the nitrogen (N) and 70% of the phosphorus (P) that others estimate to be the total flux of these elements from the entire North Atlantic watershed, including North, Central and South America, Europe, and Northwest Africa. We estimate that 61 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 20 · 109 moles y−1 of P from the large rivers are buried with sediments in their deltas, and that an equal amount of N and P from the large rivers is lost to the shelf through burial of river sediments that are deposited directly on the continental slope. The effective transport of active N and P from land to the shelf through the very large rivers is thus reduced to 292 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 13 · 109 moles y−1 of P. The remaining riverine fluxes from land must pass through estuaries. An analysis of annual total N and total P budgets for various estuaries around the North Atlantic revealed that the net fractional transport of these nutrients through estuaries to the continental shelf is inversely correlated with the log mean residence time of water in the system. This is consistent with numerous observations of nutrient retention and loss in temperate lakes. Denitrification is the major process responsible for removing N in most estuaries, and the fraction of total N input that is denitrified appears to be directly proportional to the log mean water residence time. In general, we estimate that estuarine processes retain and remove 30–65% of the total N and 10–55% of the total P that would otherwise pass into the coastal ocean. The resulting transport through estuaries to the shelf amounts to 172–335 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 11–19 · 109 moles y−1 of P. These values are similar to the effective contribution from the large rivers that discharge directly on the shelf. For the North Atlantic shelf as a whole, N fluxes from major rivers and estuaries exceed atmospheric deposition by a factor of 3.5–4.7, but this varies widely among regions of the shelf. For example, on the U.S. Atlantic shelf and on the northwest European shelf, atmospheric deposition of N may exceed estuarine exports. Denitrification in shelf sediments exceeds the combined N input from land and atmosphere by a factor of 1.4–2.2. This deficit must be met by a flux of N from the deeper ocean. Burial of organic matter fixed on the shelf removes only a small fraction of the total N and P input (2–12% of N from land and atmosphere; 1–17% of P), but it may be a significant loss for P in the North Sea and some other regions. The removal of N and P in fisheries landings is very small. The gross exchange of N and P between the shelf and the open ocean is much larger than inputs from land and, for the North Atlantic shelf as a whole, it may be much larger than the N and P removed through denitrification, burial, and fisheries. Overall, the North Atlantic continental shelf appears to remove some 700–950· 109 moles of N each year from the deep ocean and to transport somewhere between 18 and 30 · 109 moles of P to the open sea. If the N and P associated with riverine sediments deposited on the continental slope are included in the total balance, the net flux of N to the shelf is reduced by 60 · 109 moles y−1 and the P flux to the ocean is increased by 20 · 109 moles y−1. These conclusions are quite tentative, however, because of large uncertainties in our estimates of some important terms in the shelf mass balance.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Grazing rates of mixed cultures of freshwater, heterotrophic nanoflagellates on two populations of bacterial prey present together at varying concentrations were measured by using fluorescently labeled bacteria. The effect of one population on the ingestion kinetics of the other was consistent with a theory based on competitive inhibition of enzymatic reactions. However, allochthonous bacteria, when present in low concentrations within a much larger population of small autochthonous bacteria, may be preferentially grazed, which is due to their large size.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Grazing rates of mixed cultures of freshwater, heterotrophic nanoflagellates on two populations of bacterial prey present together at varying concentrations were measured by using fluorescently labeled bacteria. The effect of one population on the ingestion kinetics of the other was consistent with a theory based on competitive inhibition of enzymatic reactions. However, allochthonous bacteria, when present in low concentrations within a much larger population of small autochthonous bacteria, may be preferentially grazed, which is due to their large size.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9729
    Keywords: denitrification ; nitrification ; riverine nitrogen transport ; Seine River
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The River Seine, below Paris, receives the effluents from a large sewage treatment plant, increasing the ammonium concentration up to 6 mgN.1− in late summer. Careful measurement of ammonium, nitrate and organic nitrogen during the downriver travel of the water masses over 100 km below the outfall, along with direct determination of nitrification and benthic fluxes, allowed to establish a budget of nitrogen transport and transformations in this reach of the river. Nitrification is shown to start after a distinct period of several days required for the growth of a significant nitrifying bacterial population. Denitrification is active in the upper layer of bottom sediments but absent from the water column. Comparison of our data with those published for the period 1973–1976 shows that the nitrate load carried by the river has increased not only because of higher runoff of agricultural nitrate in the upstream part of the watershed, but also as a result of the severe reduction in the rate of denitrification processes, owing to the restoration of better oxygen conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 9 (1979), S. 727-738 
    ISSN: 0302-3524
    Keywords: North Sea coast ; estuaries ; geochemical cycle ; manganese compounds ; pH ; salinity
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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