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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U. S. Cold Regions Res. and Eng. Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-78/21
    In: CRREL Report, 78-21
    Description / Table of Contents: This study investigates the possibility of providing estimates of the time of occurrence and length of the freezing season for any location in East and West Germany by using the average Januavy air temperature (AJAT) as an index. The results indicate that reliable values of the mean freezing index can be obtained from the AJAT relationships which are developed for Germany. This association is further verified using data from the northeastern part of the U.S., and the AJAT is then used to determine the average starting and ending dates (and hence the probable length) of the freezing season for stations in Germany. The AJAT and the average dates of snowfall occurrence for numerous locations in the U.S. and Germany are also correlated. Interrelationships between these parameters and the average number of days with snow on the ground for stations up to 3000 m in elevation in Germany are examined. A detailed AJAT map for East and West Germany, in which data from 134 stations, latitude, altitude and regional influences are considered, is developed in order to make the relationships usable. A historical review of the literature on snow studies in Germany and a brief discussion of snow-cover interpretation by satellite photography are included
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 48 S. : Ill. + 1 Kt.
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 78-21
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Historical literature review Relationships between midwinter temperature and freezing season Mean freezing index 4 Average January air temperature U.S. comparative study Correlation of AJAT and duration of freezing season Relationships between average January air temperature and snow conditions U.S. relationships German relationships Mapping of average January air temperatures Analysis of observed AJ AT data Development of detailed maps Application and discussion Examples Influence of vegetation Literature cited Appendix A. interpretation of snow cover by satellite Appendix B. Contour, station elevation and Aj AT maps for East and West Germany ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Freezing index and freezing season for three stations in Germany Relationship between freezing index and length of freezing season for 17 stations in Germany Average monthly temperature curve for four stations in Germany Relationship between the average January air temperature and the mean freezing indexfor stations in Germany and New England Relationship between the average January air temperature and the average length of the freezing season for 17 stations in Germany Relationship between the average January air temperature and the average starting and ending dates of the freezing season for 17 stations in Germany Relationship between the average date of the first 1-in, snowfall of the season and the average January air temperature for 134 U.S. stations located at elevations of less than 550m Location of 24 stations in the U.S. where average dates of the first 1-in, of snowfall of the season are earlier than at stations with similar AJAT’s Relationship between the date of earliest snowfall of the season and the average Januaryair temperature for stations in East and West Germany Relationship between the date of latest snowfall of the season and the average January air temperature for stations in East and West Germany
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/6
    In: CRREL Report, 80-6
    Description / Table of Contents: Weekly measurements of the thickness of lake, river and fast sea ice made over a period of 10 to 15 years at 66 locations in Canada and Alaska are analyzed, and the portion of the data relating to maximum ice thickness and decay (i.e. the decrease in ice thickness) is examined. Ice thickness curves revealed individual patterns of ice decay, and comparisons between locations disclosed major contrasts in the amount of ice accretion and the times of maximum ice and ice clearance. Although many factors affect the ice decay process, this study investigates in detail the effect of thawing temperatures. Concurrent measurements of the air temperature at each location made it possible to analyze the relationship between accumulated thawing degree-days (ATDD) and ice cover decay. Other factors affecting ice ablation and breakup, such as snow-ice formation, snow cover depth, solar radiation and wind are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 160 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-6
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Data sources and literature review Canada Alaska Data tabulation Station selection Description of tabulated data Station location and ice measurement site descriptions Review of previous studies on maximum ice in North America Maximum ice thickness maps Date of maximum ice Plotting of the ice decay curves General procedures Categories of water bodies Ice decay at sea ice locations Envelope curves Average curves Snow-ice formation Ice decay at lake ice locations Average curves Regional variations and similarities Ice decay at river ice locations Variations in ice thickness Rapid ice clearance Comparison between Alaskan and Canadian river ice decay curves Incremental extraction of ice decay data for analysis purposes Selection of ice decay intervals Preliminary evaluation of the methodology Further considerations of the methodology Relationships between ice decay and thawing air temperatures Average daily vs maximum daily air temperature 10-day increments vs accumulated values Total years vs year-to-year analysis Evaluation of use of 0°C as a base Final format of the relationship between ice decay and ATDD Evaluation of the final form Possible causes for variations in slope values Decreasing sea ice thickness and thawing air temperatures Factors affecting sea ice decay Relationship between ATDD and sea ice decay Influence of solar radiation and wind on sea ice decay Literature cited Selected bibliography Appendix A. Ice thickness measurements and other related (or associated) observations for stations in Canada and Alaska Appendix B. Maps of least and greatest ice thickness observed at the time of maximum growth, and average date of occurrence Appendix C. Annual ice decay curves for stations in Canada and Alaska
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 3
    Call number: ZSP-201-92/14
    In: CRREL Report, 92-14
    Description / Table of Contents: Large ice jams on the Salmon River have reached Salmon, Idaho, and resulted in major flood damage during 16 winters since the winter of 1936-37. Two recent ice jams, in February 1982 and January 1984, caused flooding that resulted in damages of $1 million and $1.8 million respectively. A detailed analysis of the winter air temperature records from 1936-37 through 1991-92 revealed a strong relationship between the duration and intensity of severe cold periods, the air temperature record prior to the severe cold periods, and the occurrence of ice jams reaching the city of Salmon that result in flooding. A threshold condition is identified from which the probability of icejams reaching the city can be determined from inspection of forecasted air temperatures. It was found that once an icejam reaches the city, average daily air temperatures of approximately 18 deg F are necessary to keep the jam in place. The effects of discharge on ice thickness, and therefore ice jam length, are shown to be minor and no relation could be found in this study. An ice control structure located upstream of the city of Salmon appears to be helping to alleviate ice-jam flooding.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 18 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 92-14
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Conversion factors Introduction Data sources and analysis Air temperature records Air temperature curves Air temperature record analysis Discharge records Results Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Effects of discharge Salmon River ice control Conclusions Literature cited Abstract
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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