ISSN:
1435-1528

Source:
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000

Topics:
Chemistry and Pharmacology
,
Physics

Notes:
Abstract The pressure dependencedT g /dP of glass transition temperatureT g has received considerable interest due to its connection with solid state thermodynamic properties and theories of glass transition. Free volume considerations (1, 2) led to an estimate of the pressure effect onT g , showing thatdT g /dP had to depend on thermal expansion and compressibility changes atT g through the equation: [1] $$\frac{{dT_g }}{{dP}} = \frac{{\Delta \beta }}{{\Delta \alpha }}$$ whereΔβ=β e −β g andΔα=α e −α g Later work (3, 4, 5, 6) has shown that eq. [1] is not verified by experimental facts, the ratioΔβ/Δα being much larger than (dT g /dP) exp. Recent analysis of the properties of glasses obtained under different pressures have complicated the situation, showing that the experimental value ofdT g /dP depends, of course, on the polymer usedbut also on the experimental procedure used in its determination. Since it is obvious that in order to measure anyΔT g -value we need to operate on at leasttwo glasses, these should be identical in all properties which could influenceT g except pressure. Any difference in morphology,which could lead to a change in T g at constant pressure, should therefore be avoided in order to get a sound value for the pure pressure effectdT g /dP. To reveal this effect, we have performed (7)dT g /dP determinations on two polymers, polyvinylacetate (PVAC) and polyvinylchloride (PVC), following three different procedures: A. Measurement of the changeΔT g induced by application of a pressure incrementΔP on the liquid polymer (T〉T g ). This is the procedure normally used; the liquid is cooled down at a fixed rate of temperature change (∼5 °C/day) andT g is dilatometrically recorded at 1 atmosphere. Then the polymer is taken again to the liquid state, pressure ΔP is applied and, at the same rate, the system is cooled down isobarically; the newT g is recorded anddT g /dP calculated. B. Measurement of the change ΔTg induced by application of a pressure increment ΔP on the glassy polymer (T〈T g ). Once determinedT g at 1 atmosphere, pressureΔP is applied on the glass, time is given to the system to equilibrate; then the glass is heated isobarically. Intersection of the glassy line to the liquid line in a volume/temperature plot gives the newT g and therefore allows the calculation ofdT g /dP. C. Measurement ofΔT g during the heating of a glass along an isochor (5, 8). Here the polymer glass is heated at constant volume, by application of an increasing pressure at increasing temperatures given by(∂P/∂T) v . By repeating this procedure two times, starting from two different specific volumes of the glass, two values ofT g at different pressures can be recorded anddT g /dP calculated. Table 1 shows the result of this work Polymer A dT g /dP, °C/atm B C PVAC 0.015 0.037 0.022 PVC 0.013 0.038 0.028 Comparison of values for different procedures shows quite convincingly howdT g /dP, at a given heating or cooling rate, is a property not only of the polymer but also of the experiment. Any information which, like the pressure effect onT g , is based on a comparison between two or more glasses, should be therefore carefully analysed in terms of other contributions, besides pressure, to the total change inT g .

Type of Medium:
Electronic Resource

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