Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
At low temperatures, ethylene and α-olefins (Δ1-olefins or 1-alkenes) are rapidly converted into oligomrs by the two-component organometallic catalyst CH3TiCl3·CH3AlCl2. To achieve smooth oligomerizations, aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons must be used as solvents. Although the activity of the titanium-carbon bond is enhanced by the aluminum component of the catalyst, the aluminum and its methyl group do not participate in the reaction proper; the latter proceeds exclusively at the titanium-carbon bond. The reaction will olefins can be used as an analytical method for the quantitative determination of the titanium-carbon bond in admixture with the organoaluminum component. It is thus possible to follow the reaction leading to formation of the catalyst from titanium tertrachloride, as well as the processes occurring at the titanium-carbon bond during the oligomerization of olefins. All the observations indicate that the catalyst possesses an ionic structure which is determined by the solvent. It is shown that the initial reaction step probably involves formation of a complex between the olefin and the alkyltitanium cation. The reaction scheme proposed is based on organometallic reactions which are characterized by carbanion and hydride transfers within the olefin-cation complex. This mechanism, which is unusual for Ziegler catalysts, is due to the predominance of hydride transfers.
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