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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: In early September 2014, about 4.000 scientists, activists and artists at the 4th International Conference on Degrowth sent out two messages. 1. Industrialized societies will change, either by disaster or by design. Accelerated resource exploitation and climate change can force societies into a transition. Or they swiftly develop new forms of economic, political and social organization which respect the planetary boundaries. 2. "Degrowth" has become a new social movement which translates scientific insights into cultural change, political change and social practice. Hence, the conference itself was an experiment on the potentials and limits of share economy, commoning and sufficiency. A team of young scholars and activists from different German research institutes and non-govern- mental organisations prepared the conference. The team of the Wuppertal Institute was partly involved in the preperation of the conference. Scientists from all research groups took part in the conference, presenting and discussing project results. The publication is a collection of contributions of the Wuppertal Institute to the conference and covers pivotal issues of the degrowth-debate: indicator development (Freyling & Schepelmann), working time reduction (Buhl), feminist theory (Biesecker & Winterfeld), and urban transition (Best).
    Description: Anfang September 2014 sendeten circa 4.000 Wissenschaftler(innen), Aktivist(inn)en und Künstler(innen) auf der vierten internationalen Degrowth Konferenz in Leipzig zwei Botschaften aus: 1. Industrialisierte Gesellschaften werden sich verändern, mittels Desaster oder Design. Zunehmende Ressourcenausbeutung und Klimawandel können Gesellschaften zur Transition zwingen. Es sei denn sie entwickeln rasch neue Formen ökonomischer, politischer und sozialer Organisation, die die Grenzen des Planeten berücksichtigen. 2. "Degrowth" ist zu einer neuen sozialen Bewegung geworden, die wissenschaftliche Einsichten in kulturellen Wandel, politischen Wandel und soziale Praxis übersetzt. Die Konferenz selbst war ein Experiment bezüglich der Potenziale und Grenzen von share economy, commoning und Suffizienz. Die Konferenz wurde von jungen Wissenschaftler(inne)n und Aktivist(inn)en diverser deutscher Forschungsinstitute und Nichtregierungsorganisationen gestaltet. Das Team des Wuppertal Instituts hat teilweise an der Konferenzvorbereitung mitgewirkt. Wissenschaftler(innen) aller Forschungsgruppen nahmen an der Konferenz teil, präsentierten und diskutierten Projektergebnisse. Die Publikation ist eine Sammlung der Konferenzbeiträge aus dem Wuppertal Institut, sie umfasst alle Schlüsselthemen der degrowth-Debatte: Entwicklung von Indikatoren (Freyling & Schepelmann), Arbeitszeitverkürzung (Buhl), Feministische Theorie (Biesecker & Winterfeld), und Urbane Transition (Best).
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: Die Debatten und die sozialen Bewegungen zu Commons spielen im Spannungsfeld der Abwehr aktueller Enteignungen und der Entwicklung neuer Perspektiven. Den Commons wohnt eine ihnen eigene Kraft neben Markt und Staat und eine eigene Transformationskraft hin zu mehr Nachhaltigkeit inne. Sie stellen als Abwehr ein kritisches Korrektiv vorherrschender neoliberaler ökonomischer Rationalität und Praxen dar. Sie weisen als neuer Referenzrahmen auf zukünftige Wege jenseits von Staat und Markt hin. Sicher stellen sie nicht die eine einzige große Lösung dar. Eine mit Commons verbundene zentrale Herausforderung liegt jedoch darin, dass sie auf das verweisen, was dem Begriff Transformation innewohnt: Eine Umformung moderner Gesellschaften, die ihren Kern - ihre Gestalt und ihre Struktur - betrifft. Bis heute werden bürgerliche Gesellschaften zentral durch ihre Eigentumsverfassung bestimmt. Doch bis morgen und im Kontext der großen Transformation müsste eben diese Eigentumsverfassung neu geschrieben werden. Nicht in dem Sinne, dass nun alles Gemeineigentum ist und dass mit dieser Eigentumsform alle Probleme gelöst werden könnten. Sondern in dem Sinne, dass Eigentumsbildung anhand nachhaltiger Kriterien und vielfältig erfolgt. Doch kommt mit alten und neuen Ideen von Gemeinschaft und Gemeinbesitz und kommt mit den Commons nicht automatisch das Gute und Richtige in die Welt. Vielmehr bleibt zu fragen, welche Bedingungen und Regeln, welche Möglichkeitsräume und Rechte erforderlich sind, damit Commons ihr demokratisches Nachhaltigkeits-Potenzial entfalten können. Eine zentrale Bedingung hierfür ist, das Wachstums- und Schrumpfungsverhältnis von privatem und öffentlichem Raum umzukehren. Commons bedürfen einer starken demokratischen Öffentlichkeit und eines qualitativ hochwertigen öffentlichen Raumes. Das Paper stellt zunächst die unterschiedlichen Commonsbegriffe vor und zeigt die den Debatten innewohnenden politischen Rationalitätsmuster auf. Weiter wird von der Ideengeschichte vorherrschender politischer und ökonomischer Logiken erzählt und dargelegt, weshalb und inwiefern diese Logiken Commons zerstören. Die Ambivalenz öffentlichen und privaten Eigentums wird am Beispiel Wald aufgezeigt. Schließlich werden Theorie und Praxis von Commons, Commoning und Commoners skizziert.
    Description: Debates about commons and their social movements take place between the conflicting priorities of resistance of current dispossession and the development of new perspectives. Commons have their own power besides the market (sector) and the government and an own driving force of transformation towards more sustainability. As resistance factor they represent a critical corrective of predominant, neoliberal-economical rationality and practices and are a new frame of reference featuring future developments beyond the government and the market (sector). Surely they do not illustrate the one and only solution. A central challenge related to commons' is that it refers to what is meant by the term transformation: A remodelling of recent societies that affects their core, shape and structure. By today, civil societies are centrally shaped by their property constitutions. But until tomorrow and in the context of a great transformation, the constitution of property needs to be rewritten. Not in the sense that from now on everything belongs to public property and that this form of property is able to solve all problems, but in the sense that the acquisition of property takes place diversely and by following sustainable criteria. As a matter of fact, even with old and new ideas of society and public property and by means of commons, things in our world will not automatically become good and right. Instead it has to be asked what kinds of conditions and policies, which windows of opportunities and which rights are necessary to ensure that commons are able to develop a democratic sustainability potential. A crucial condition here is to turn around the relation of growth and negative growth of private and public space. Commons require a strong democratic public and a qualitatively valuable public space. This paper firstly introduces the different terms of commons and indicates the immanent political rationality patterns of the debates. Furthermore the intellectual history of predominantly political and economical logics is told and it is presented why and how these logics destroy commons. Ambivalence of public and private property is demonstrated using forests as an example. Finally the theory and practice of commons, communing and commoners is outlined.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: Welchen Effekt haben engagierte Klimaschutzmaßnahmen der Politik auf NRW's Schlüsselbranchen, wie Automotive, chemische Industrie, Finanzwirtschaft oder Energiewirtschaft? Eine Kurzstudie des Wuppertal Instituts untersucht, welche Chancen und Risiken aus dieser Praxis entstehen können. Außerdem werden Arbeitsplatz- und Wertschöpfungseffekte auch mit Blick auf entstehende Zukunftsmärkte analysiert.
    Keywords: ddc:320
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 4
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    Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Description: Das Paper stellt zunächst die unterschiedlichen Commonsbegriffe vor und zeigt die den Debatten innewohnenden politischen Rationalitätsmuster auf. Weiter wird von der Ideengeschichte vorherrschender politischer und ökonomischer Logiken erzählt und dargelegt, weshalb und inwiefern diese Logiken Commons zerstören. Die Ambivalenz öffentlichen und privaten Eigentums wird am Beispiel Wald aufgezeigt. Schließlich werden Theorie und Praxis von Commons, Commoning und Commoners skizziert.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: workingpaper , doc-type:workingpaper
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: contributiontoperiodical , doc-type:contributiontoperiodical
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: contributiontoperiodical , doc-type:contributiontoperiodical
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-04-01
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: bookpart , doc-type:bookpart
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: This is an open-access article, free of all copyright. The definitive version was published in PLoS One 9 (2014): e98995, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098995.
    Description: Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment.
    Description: Beau and Heather Wrigley generously provided the founding grant. Additional financial and in-kind support was provided by the Pacific Life Foundation, Thomas W. Haas Fund of the New Hampshire Charitable Foundation, the Oak Foundation, Akiko Shiraki Dynner Fund for Ocean Exploration and Conservation, Darden Restaurants Inc. Foundation, Conservation International, New England Aquarium, National Geographic, and the University of California Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, which supported the Ecosystem Health Working Group as part of the Science of Ecosystem-Based Management project funded by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Individual authors also acknowledge support from the U.S. National Science Foundation.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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    Format: application/msword
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Ecological Applications 28 (2018): 749-760, doi: 10.1002/eap.1682.
    Description: The biodiversity and high productivity of coastal terrestrial and aquatic habitats are the foundation for important benefits to human societies around the world. These globally distributed habitats need frequent and broad systematic assessments, but field surveys only cover a small fraction of these areas. Satellite‐based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near‐infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats (floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae). These measures can be incorporated into Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs), including the distribution, abundance, and traits of groups of species populations, and used to evaluate habitat fragmentation. However, current and planned satellites are not designed to observe the EBVs that change rapidly with extreme tides, salinity, temperatures, storms, pollution, or physical habitat destruction over scales relevant to human activity. Making these observations requires a new generation of satellite sensors able to sample with these combined characteristics: (1) spatial resolution on the order of 30 to 100‐m pixels or smaller; (2) spectral resolution on the order of 5 nm in the visible and 10 nm in the short‐wave infrared spectrum (or at least two or more bands at 1,030, 1,240, 1,630, 2,125, and/or 2,260 nm) for atmospheric correction and aquatic and vegetation assessments; (3) radiometric quality with signal to noise ratios (SNR) above 800 (relative to signal levels typical of the open ocean), 14‐bit digitization, absolute radiometric calibration 〈2%, relative calibration of 0.2%, polarization sensitivity 〈1%, high radiometric stability and linearity, and operations designed to minimize sunglint; and (4) temporal resolution of hours to days. We refer to these combined specifications as H4 imaging. Enabling H4 imaging is vital for the conservation and management of global biodiversity and ecosystem services, including food provisioning and water security. An agile satellite in a 3‐d repeat low‐Earth orbit could sample 30‐km swath images of several hundred coastal habitats daily. Nine H4 satellites would provide weekly coverage of global coastal zones. Such satellite constellations are now feasible and are used in various applications.
    Description: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant Numbers: NNX16AQ34G, NNX14AR62A; National Ocean Partnership Program; NOAA US Integrated Ocean Observing System/IOOS Program Office; Bureau of Ocean and Energy Management Ecosystem Studies program (BOEM) Grant Number: MC15AC00006
    Keywords: Aquatic ; Coastal zone ; Ecology ; Essentail biodiversity variables ; H4 imaging ; Hyperspectral ; Remote sensing ; Vegetation ; Wetland
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of NRC Research Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66 (2009): 1399-1403, doi:10.1139/F09-115.
    Description: Despite many years of study and protection, the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains on the brink of extinction. There is a crucial gap in our understanding of their habitat use in the migratory corridor along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Here, we characterize habitat suitability in migrating right whales in relation to depth, distance to shore, and the recently enacted ship speed regulations near major ports. We find that the range of suitable habitat exceeds previous estimates and that, as compared with the enacted 20 nautical mile buffer, the originally proposed 30 nautical mile buffer would protect more habitat for this critically endangered species.
    Description: This work was supported in part by SERDP/DoD grant W912HQ-04-C-0011 to A.J. Read and P.N. Halpin as well as a James B. Duke Fellowship and a Harvey L. Smith Dissertation Year Fellowship to R.S. Schick.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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