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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-06-24
    Description: Fragmentation characteristics for four artificial meteoroids of high density and high tensile strength with varying size, velocity, and material are investigated. The meteoroids analyzed were lifted to natural meteor altitude by a rocket vehicle system. The meteoroids were then accelerated back into the Earth's atmosphere at natural meteor velocities. Anomalous deceleration of high density meteors was studied. It is shown that anomalies in the deceleration are due to progressive fragmentation of the meteoroids. These anomalies in the deceleration of high density meteoroids are similar to the anomalies that occur in the deceleration of natural meteors, which are generally assumed to be porous and of weak structure.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TP-1333 , L-12508
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Measurements of longwave radiation from the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment aboard the Nimbus 6 spacecraft have been analyzed to show the annual cycle of the distribution of Earth emitted radiation.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center 4th NASA Weather and Climate Program Sci. Rev.; p 297-301
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: One year of longwave radiation data from July 1975 through June 1976 from the Nimbus 6 satellite Earth radiation budget experiment is analyzed by representing the radiation field by a spherical harmonic expansion. The data are from the wide field of view instrument. Contour maps of the longwave radiation field and spherical harmonic coefficients to degree 12 and order 12 are presented for a 12 month data period.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TP-1746 , L-13873
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2006-01-12
    Description: A laboratory experimental program was conducted to determine the amount of fragment debris produced and its size distribution when simulated spacecraft walls are penetrated by hypervelocity projectiles. Two tests were made in which a spacecraft wall was struck with a small steel and an aluminum projectile, respectively. Results show that most of the fragment debris were irregularly shaped flat plates. The fragment data follow a cumulative number distribution law of the form N =am'b' where 'm' is fragment mass and 'a' and 'b' are constants. Orbital lifetimes of most of the fragments were very short, being on the order of a few days.
    Keywords: RESEARCH AND SUPPORT FACILITIES (AIR)
    Type: PAPER-46 , 8th Conf. on Space Simulation; p 575-590
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2006-02-14
    Description: In the past, flight experiments to define the meteoroid environment near the Earth and in interplanetary space were undertaken. The effectiveness of meteoroid bumpers was investigated. These flight experiments were aboard Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Explorer 46. Hypervelocity impact tests were conducted in the laboratory to study protective structures and the composition of meteoroids from the hundreds of meteor spectra obtained. It was also found that manmade debris presented a similar hazard to spacecraft near the Earth. An assessment of that hazard is made in this paper. An analysis of the collision probability problem with much attention given to the population of small untrackable fragments created during explosions is presented.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Orbital Debris; p 45-68
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data from ERBE wide-field-of-view (WFOV) and scanning sensor are compared with Nimbus-7 WFOV results. Monthly averaged OLR data from the ERBE WFOV instruments aboard the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 polar orbiting satellites during the 3-year overlap period with Nimbus-7 are deconvolved using spherical harmonics. Results of a comparison of the data sets are presented on regional, zonal, and global scales in the spatial domain and on a monthly scale in the time domain.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: In: Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography, 6th, Atlanta, GA, Jan. 5-10, 1992, Preprints (A93-36051 14-47); p. 201-204.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) was applied to a 10-yr data set of outgoing longwave radiation. Spherical harmonic functions are used as a basis set for producing equal area map results. The first EOF accounts for 66 percent of the variance. After that, each EOF accounts for only a small variance, forming a slowly converging series. The first two EOFs describe mainly the annual cycle. The third EOF is primarily the semiannual cycle although many other EOFs also contain significant semiannual parts. These results reaffirm those based on a shorter data set. In addition, a much stronger spring/fall mode was found in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean for the second EOF than was found earlier. The fourth EOF describes much of the 1976 to 1977 and 1982 to 1983 ENSO phenomena. There is typically a gap in the spectrum between a semiannual peak and the annual cycle for all but the first EOF. A semiannual OLR dipole straddles the Asian-Australian monsoon track.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D12,; 12
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Method using matrix approach to determine best linear estimate of total flux consistent with condition of minimum variance proves useful in meteorological studies. It is useful for researchers studying options in scanner design such as scan pattern, scan rate, and radiometer field-of-view.
    Keywords: PHYSICAL SCIENCES
    Type: LAR-12158 , NASA Tech Briefs (ISSN 0145-319X); 3; 3; P. 353
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data from Nimbus-7 ERB wide field-of-view instruments are compared with results from the ERBE instruments aboard the NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 satellites. Over most regions of the globe, the agreement between the two sets of OLR results is generally to within 8 W/sq m. There are larger differences at higher latitudes and regions concentrated over land and desert. Results of daytime and nighttime differences suggest that the shortwave channels may be at fault due to their different design for Nimbus-7 and NOAA-9. Some of the differences may also be related to different viewing geometry of the two satellites.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Applied Meteorology (ISSN 0894-8763); 32; 5; p. 813-824.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) measurements from the Nimbus-6 ERB wide field-of-view instrument are used to study daytime and nighttime radiation variability on a 15 deg regional, zonal, and global scale. An analysis of components of variance is used to determine how much of the total variability is due to between-region and within-region variance. Most of the analysis is on July and January data from one year of Nimbus-6 ERB. Different geographical scales are considered: regions within latitude zones and latitude zones within hemispheres. Results show that much of the variability is spatial, peaks in the tropics and subtropics, and is concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere. Daytime variability is generally larger than nighttime variability for July but not for January. Variance in OLR in the tropics and subtropics is largely a function of cloud variability.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 43; 1445-145
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