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  • 1
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Pentachloromonocarbonylosmate(III) ; Crystalline Hydrate ; Crystal Structure ; Vibrational Spectra ; Normal Coordinate Analysis ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Vibrational Spectra, and Normal Coordinate Analysis of K2[OsCl5(CO)] · H2OThe X-ray structure determination of K2[OsCl5(CO)] · H2O (monoclinic, space group P21/c a = 13.600(2), b = 7.122(1), c = 22.186(11) Å, β = 98.66(3)°, Z = 8) revealed two crystallographic independent bat very similar complex anions [OsCl5(CO)]2- with rough C4v point symmetry. Due to the stronger trans influence of the carbonyl group the bond lengths in the Cl—Os—CO axis Os—Cl = 2.449(2), 2.430(2) Å are langer as compared with the octahedron basis Os—Cl = 2.340-2.370 Å. The water of crystallization is coordinated to potassium (K—OH2 = 2.625-2.815 Å). Using the molecular parameters the IR and Raman spectra are assigned by normal coordinate analysis. The valence force constants are fd(CO) = 15.30, fd(OsC) = 3.88, fd(OsCl) = 1.81, fd(OsCl) = 1.36, fd(OH) = 7.65, 7.82, 7.79 mdyn/Å. The strengthening of the Os—C bond by stronger back donation of the OsIII(d5) complex in comparison with the isostructural OsIV (d4) compound is discussed.
    Notes: Die Röntgenstrukturanalyse von K2[OsCl5(CO)] · H2O (monoklin, Raumgruppe P21/c a = 13,600(2), b = 7,122(1), c = 22,186(11) Å, β = 98,66(3)°, Z = 8) hat gezeigt, daß zwei kristallographisch unabhängige aber sehr ähnliche Komplexanionen [OsCl5(CO)]2- mit annähernd C4v-Punktsymmetrie vorliegen. Durch den größeren trans-Einfluß der Carbonylgruppe sind die Bindungsabstände in der Cl—Os—CO Achse Os—Cl = 2,449(2), 2,430(2) Å länger als in der Oktaederbasis: Os—Cl = 2,340-2,370 Å. Das Kristallwasser ist an Kalium koordiniert (K—OH2 = 2,625-2,815 Å). Mit den röntgenographisch bestimmten Molekülparametern lassen sich die IR- und Raman-Spektren durch Normalkoordinatenanalyse zuordnen. Die Valenzkraftkonstanten betragen fd(CO) = 15,30, fd(OsC) = 3,88, fd(OsCl) = 1,81, fd(OsCl) = 1,36, fd(OH) = 7,65, 7,82, 7,79 mdyn/Å. Die Festigung der Os—C-Bindung durch stärkere Rückbindung in dem OsIII(d5)-Komplex im Vergleich zur isostrukturellen OsIV(d4)-Verbindung wird diskutiert.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 623 (1997), S. 1389-1392 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Pentachloromonoamminiridate(III) ; Crystal Structure ; Vibrational Spectra ; Normal Coordinate Analysis ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Crystal Structure, Vibrational Spectra, and Normal Coordinate Analysis of K2[IrCl5(NH3)]The X-ray structure determination of K2[IrCl5(NH3)] (orthorhombic, space group Pnma, a = 13.426(4), b = 10.015(2), c = 6.8717(7) Å, Z = 4) revealed the Cs point symmetry of the complex anion [IrCl5(NH3)]2- (Ir—Cl = 2.337-2.365, Ir—N = 2.067(10); N—H = 0.73-0.79 Å). Using the molecular parameters the IR and Raman spectra are assigned by normal coordinate analysis. The valence force constants are fd(NH) = 5.88, fd(IrN) = 2.66, fd(IrCl) = 1.68 mdyn/Å.
    Notes: Die Röntgenstrukturanalyse von K2[IrCl5(NH3)] (orthorhombisch, Raumgruppe Pnma, a = 13,426(4), b = 10,015(2), c = 6,8717(7) Å, Z = 4) hat gezeigt, daß das Komplexanion [IrCl5(NH3)]2- (Ir—Cl = 2,337-2,365, Ir—N = 2,067(10); N—H = 0,73-0,79 Å) Cs-Punktsymmetrie aufweist. Mit den röntgenographisch bestimmten Molekülparametern lassen sich die IR- und Raman-Spektren durch Normalkoordinatenanalyse zuordnen. Die Valenzkraftkonstanten betragen fd(NH) = 5,88, fd(IrN) = 2,66, fd(IrCl) = 1,68 mdyn/Å.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-07-06
    Description: Decades of acid rain have acidified forest soils and freshwaters throughout montane forests of the northeastern United States; the resulting loss of soil base cations is hypothesized to be responsible for limiting rates of forest growth throughout the region. In 1999, an experiment was conducted that reversed the long-term trend...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-12-28
    Description: Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km2 of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-02-29
    Description: In an era of increasingly multidisciplinary science, it is essential to identify the frontiers as well as the core of an inherently holistic discipline: ecosystem ecology. To achieve this, we led a series of town hall events at multiple scientific-society meetings over a two-year period followed by a workshop with a diverse set of ecosystem scientists to review and expand on those outcomes. For the society town hall events ~70 individuals were asked to give short, provocative (the so-called, soapbox) presentations and audience members (~250) filled out tailored surveys. Both presentations and surveys were transcribed and themes were extracted and analyzed before and during the follow-up workshop. Formal ethnographic analysis of the soapbox texts produced three major themes: “frontiers,” “capacity building,” and “barriers to implementation,” including several subthemes. A workshop was held to analyze the ethnographic data where workshop participants further grouped key frontiers as (1) rethinking the drivers of ecosystem change, (2) new insights into ecosystem process and function, (3) evaluating human dimensions of ecosystem ecology, and (4) new angles on problem-solving/applied research. In addition, 13 experts were interviewed to crosscheck interpretations. The survey data, workshop deliberations, and expert interviews suggest that the core of these frontiers defines the current state and provides the foundational knowledge that bounds ecosystem ecology as a discipline. In response to emerging complex environmental issues and ongoing socioecological challenges, the edges of these frontiers expand fundamental ecosystem ecology to engage and intersect with disciplinary realms to create new ways of making sense of complexity, and to develop an even more holistic understanding of ecological systems. In this paper, we present our synthesis of the frontier and core research themes with the goal of inspiring the next wave of studies in ecosystem ecology. ©2016 The Author(s)〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-016-9967-0" target="_blank"〉〈img src="http://bib.telegrafenberg.de/typo3temp/pics/f2f773b55e.png" border="0"〉〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 1432-9840
    Electronic ISSN: 1435-0629
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
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