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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract This paper analyzes the political economy of environmental-policy formation in a trading economy with established rules for administered protection. We argue that the social costs associated with the adoption of an inefficient environmental regime are likely to be compounded by induced restrictions on trade when the effected industries are import competing. The preferences of interest groups for alternative environmental regimes tend to be linked to the legal-institutional setting in which trade policy is conducted. Under existing rules and practices in the area of administered protection, there is reason to believe that interest group preferences for an inefficient approach to pollution control will be strengthened because the adoption of such a regime is more likely to lead to a concomitant increase in trade barriers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmaceutical research 14 (1997), S. 810-814 
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: formoterol ; radiation treatment ; ESR spectroscopy ; dosimetry ; storage ; HPLC ; degradation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. Radiation sterilization is becoming increasingly popular for the sterilization of many pharmaceutical products. We have investigated the gamma radiation induced effects on formoterol fumarate by HPLC and ESR spectroscopy. Results and Discussion. Numerical simulation of the evolution of the ESR signal versus dose was performed using linear regression, quadratic fit and power function. The shape of the dosimetric curve is linear in the range 5−30 kGy. Owing to the weak number of free radicals generated during the irradiation, the accuracy of measurements is low. For a dose of 25 kGy, discriminating irradiated from unirradiated samples is possible if the storage period is less than 250 days. The comparison between chromatographic profiles of irradiated and unirradiated samples showed minor differences. Conclusions. From our preliminary results, radiosterilization of formoterol fumarate may be technically feasible. Estimation of the irradiation dose by ESR may be possible but, due to the weak number of free radicals generated during the irradiation, the accuracy of measurements appeared low.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmaceutical research 14 (1997), S. 1186-1191 
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: radiosterilization ; ascorbic acid ; ESR ; dosimetry ; decay of radicals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. As an alternative to heat and gas exposure sterilization, ionizing radiation is gaining interest as a sterilization process for medicinal products. The aim of this work was to develop equations to describe the ESR curves versus dose and storage time after gamma irradiation of ascorbic acid. Several ESR data sets previously acquired in this laboratory were adopted to check the performance of the models. Results. Limit of detection and limit of discrimination are respectively 0.5 kGy and 2 kGy for ascorbic acid. Linear regression is applicable for doses lower than 25 kGy. Since the radiation dose selected must always be based upon the bioburden of the products and the Degree of Sterility required (ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137), doses in the range 5−25 kGy could be investigated and linear regression would appear to be the least expensive route to follow and gives good results. Quadratic fit, power function, exponential function and bi-exponential functions are of more general applicability to predict irradiation dose. Decay kinetics for radicals versus storage were considered. Nonhomogeneous kinetics with time-dependent rate (diffusion-controlled second-order reaction) and bi-exponential function appeared valid to reproduce the experimental data. Discrimination between irradiated and unirradiated ascorbic acid is possible after a storage of 800 days. Conclusions. It is worth noting that, at present, ESR is the only technique which proves to be suitable for identification and quantification purposes in irradiated pharmaceuticals. Moreover, other features such as sensitivity, precision, ease and non-destructive readout make ESR superior to other proposed analytical techniques.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmaceutical research 14 (1997), S. 1192-1196 
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: dopamine ; norepinephrine ; radiation treatment ; ESR spectroscopy ; dosimetry ; storage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Purpose. Radiation sterilization is becoming increasingly popular for the sterilization of many pharmaceutical products. We have investigated the gamma radiation induced effects on dopamine and norepineprine by ESR spectroscopy. Results and Discussion. Equations to describe the evolution of the ESR curves versus doses and time of storage are presented. Linear regression is, for dopamine hydrochloride, applicable for doses ranging from 10 to 25 kGy. Since the radiation dose selected must always be based upon the bioburden of the products and the degree of sterility required, doses in the range 10−25 kGy could be investigated and linear regression would appear to be the least expensive route to follow and gives good results. The comportment of noradrenaline bitartrate is more complex and the use of linear regression would appear more hazardous especially for low doses. For doses higher than 25 kGy, a more general equation is required. Power function using only 2 parameters could give good results but must be validated. Decay kinetics for radicals versus storage were considered. Non-homogenous kinetics with time dependent rate constant and bi-exponential function appeared valid to reproduce the decay of radicals for, respectively, dopamine and norepinephrine. Conclusions. It is worth noting that, at present, ESR is the only technique which proved to be suitable for identification and quantification purposes in irradiated pharmaceuticals. Moreover, other features such as sensitivity, precision, ease and non-destructive readout make ESR superior to other proposed analytical techniques.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-904X
    Keywords: neutron activation ; erbium-171 ; erythromycin ; drug delivery system ; gamma scintigraphy ; radiolabeled dosage forms ; scanning electron micrography ; erythromycin dissolution ; erythromycin antimicrobial activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate the effects of a neutron activation radiolabeling technique on an enteric-coated multiparticulate formulation of erythromycin, test quantities were produced under industrial pilot scale conditions. The pellets contained the stable isotope erbium oxide (Er-170), which was later converted by neutron activation into the short-lived gamma ray-emitting radionuclide, erbium-171. In vitro studies indicated that the dissolution profile, acid resistance, and enteric-coated surface of the pellets were minimally affected by the irradiation procedure. Antimicrobial potency was also unaffected, as determined by microbiological assay. Neutron activation thus appears to simplify the radiolabeling of complex pharmaceutical dosage forms for in vivo study by external gamma scintigraphy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A new device was developed to assess fatigue life under biaxial tensile loading at elevated temperatures. It makes use of an annular disk specimen and can be easily mounted onto a standard push-pull machine so that the axial force is converted into radial forces extending across the disk specimen. Therefore, a positive ratio of the tangential to the radial stress can be imposed at the reduced section of the disk specimen; this ratio depends on the specimen configuration and may be fixed to a value ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 by varying the inner diameter of the disk. The proposed device has performed successfully and was used to study the cyclic behavior of Type-304 stainless steel subjected to various biaxial tensile stress states at room temperature and at 200°C. The data obtained from this experimental procedure have been analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of some correlations already available for treating the biaxial cyclic stress-strain response in terms of the uniaxial behavior. This analysis shows that a successful correlation should account for all the stress components. The authors discuss the concept used in the modeling of the material cyclic behavior and the formulation of a biaxial fatigue damage parameter necessary for an effective analytical life prediction methodology.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
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    New York : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Journal of marketing. 54:1 (1990:Jan.) 71 
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  • 10
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    Chicago : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
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