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  • 1
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    Sears Foundation for Marine Research
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Sears Foundation for Marine Research, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Sears Foundation for Marine Research for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Marine Research 63 (2005): 497-527, doi:10.1357/0022240054307894.
    Description: Nonlinear rectification of the ocean circulation driven by random forcing, which simulates the effect of unresolved eddies, is studied in an idealized closed basin. The results are based on the analysis of randomly forced solutions and linear eigenmodes. Depending on the forcing strength, two rectification regimes are found: zonal jets and isolated gyres. It is shown that both regimes are due to nonlinear interactions of resonant basin modes. In the zonal-jet regime, these interactions involve complex interplay between resonant baroclinic modes and some secondary modes. Both Rhines' scaling for zonal jets and prediction of gyres based on the maximum entropy argument are not confirmed.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Elsevier B.V., 2007. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 43 (2007): 123-150, doi:10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2006.08.001.
    Description: This study examines mid-latitude climate variability in a model that couples turbulent oceanic and atmospheric flows through an active oceanic mixed layer. Intrinsic ocean dynamics of the inertial recirculation regions combines with nonlinear atmospheric sensitivity to sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies to play a dominant role in the variability of the coupled system. Intrinsic low-frequency variability arises in the model atmosphere; when run in a stand-alone mode, it is characterized by irregular transitions between preferred high-latitude and less frequent low-latitude zonal-flow states. When the atmosphere is coupled to the ocean, the low-latitude state occurrences exhibit a statistically significant signal in a broad 5–15-year band. A similar signal is found in the time series of the model ocean’s energy in this coupled simulation. Accompanying uncoupled ocean-only and atmosphere-only integrations are characterized by a decrease in the decadal-band variability, relative to the coupled integration; their spectra are indistinguishable from a red spectrum. The time scale of the coupled interdecadal oscillation is set by the nonlinear adjustment of the ocean’s inertial recirculations to the high-latitude and low-latitude atmospheric forcing regimes. This adjustment involves, in turn, SST changes resulting in long-term ocean–atmosphere heat-flux anomalies that induce the atmospheric regime transitions.
    Description: This research was supported by NSF grant OCE-02-221066 (all co-authors) and DOE grant DE-FG-03-01ER63260 (MG and SK).
    Keywords: Inertial recirculations ; Mid-latitude jet stream ; Bimodality
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © 2008 The Authors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 15 (2008): 13-24, doi:10.5194/npg-15-13-2008
    Description: We show that the observed zonally averaged jet in the Northern Hemisphere atmosphere exhibits two spatial patterns with broadband variability in the decadal and inter-decadal range; these patterns are consistent with an important role of local, mid-latitude ocean–atmosphere coupling. A key aspect of this behaviour is the fundamentally nonlinear bi-stability of the atmospheric jet's latitudinal position, which enables relatively small sea-surface temperature anomalies associated with ocean processes to affect the large-scale atmospheric winds. The wind anomalies induce, in turn, complex three-dimensional anomalies in the ocean's main thermocline; in particular, they may be responsible for recently reported cooling of the upper ocean. Both observed modes of variability, decadal and inter-decadal, have been found in our intermediate climate models. One mode resembles North Atlantic tri-polar sea-surface temperature (SST) patterns described elsewhere. The other mode, with mono-polar SST pattern, is novel; its key aspects include interaction of oceanic turbulence with the large-scale oceanic flow. To the extent these anomalies exist, the interpretation of observed climate variability in terms of natural and human-induced changes will be affected. Coupled mid-latitude ocean-atmosphere modes do, however, suggest some degree of predictability is possible.
    Description: This research was supported by NSF grant OCE-02-221066, DOE grants DE-FG-03-01ER63260 and DE-FG02-02ER63413, as well as NASA grant NNG-06-AG66G-1 (MG & SK). PB has also been supported by the Newton Trust research grant, and SK - by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Research Growth Initiative program 2006-2007.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Ocean Modelling 30 (2009): 155-168, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.06.009.
    Description: A new high-resolution Eulerian numerical method is proposed for modelling quasigeostrophic ocean dynamics in eddying regimes. The method is based on a novel, second-order non-dissipative and lowdispersive conservative advection scheme called CABARET. The properties of the new method are compared with those of several high-resolution Eulerian methods for linear advection and gas dynamics. Then, the CABARET method is applied to the classical model of the double-gyre ocean circulation and its performance is contrasted against that of the common vorticity-preserving Arakawa method. In turbulent regimes, the new method permits credible numerical simulations on much coarser computational grids.
    Description: Supports from the Royal Society of London and from the Mary Sears Visitor Grant are acknowledged by SK with gratitude. The work of VG was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR), grant 06-01-00819a. Funding for PB was provided by the NSF grant 0725796.
    Keywords: Mesoscale ocean dynamics ; Eddy resolving simulations ; High-resolution schemes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 22 (2009): 4066–4082, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI2629.1.
    Description: Small-scale variation in wind stress due to ocean–atmosphere interaction within the atmospheric boundary layer alters the temporal and spatial scale of Ekman pumping driving the double-gyre circulation of the ocean. A high-resolution quasigeostrophic (QG) ocean model, coupled to a dynamic atmospheric mixed layer, is used to demonstrate that, despite the small spatial scale of the Ekman-pumping anomalies, this phenomenon significantly modifies the large-scale ocean circulation. The primary effect is to decrease the strength of the nonlinear component of the gyre circulation by approximately 30%–40%. This result is due to the highest transient Ekman-pumping anomalies destabilizing the flow in a dynamically sensitive region close to the western boundary current separation. The instability of the jet produces a flux of potential vorticity between the two gyres that acts to weaken both gyres.
    Description: AH and WD were supported by an ARC Linkage International Grant (LX0668781). WD was also supported by NSF Grants OCE 0424227 and OCE 0550139. Funding for PB was provided by NSF Grants OCE 0344094 and OCE 0725796 and by the research grant from the Newton Trust of the University of Cambridge. SK was supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02–02ER63413 and NASA Grant NNG-06- AG66G-1.
    Keywords: Airndashsea interaction ; Coupled models ; Mesoscale processes ; Wind stress ; Ekman pumping/transport
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography. 37 (2007): 2363-2386, doi:10.1175/jpo3118.1.
    Description: Intrinsic low-frequency variability is studied in the idealized, quasigeostrophic, midlatitude, wind-driven ocean gyres operating at large Reynolds number. A robust decadal variability mode driven by the transient mesoscale eddies is found and analyzed. The variability is a turbulent phenomenon, which is driven by the competition between the eddy rectification process and the potential vorticity anomalies induced by changes of the intergyre transport
    Description: Funding for Pavel Berloff was provided by NSF Grants OCE-0091836 and OCE- 0344094, by the U.K. Royal Society Fellowship, and by the Newton Trust Award, A. M. Hogg was supported by an Australian Research Council Postdoctoral Fellowship (DP0449851) during this work, and William K. Dewar was supported by NSF Grants OCE-0424227 and OCE-0550139.
    Keywords: Turbulence ; Gyres ; Transport ; Potential vorticity ; Mesoscale processes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 37 (2007): 1103-1121, doi:10.1175/jpo3041.1.
    Description: The role of mesoscale oceanic eddies is analyzed in a quasigeostrophic coupled ocean–atmosphere model operating at a large Reynolds number. The model dynamics are characterized by decadal variability that involves nonlinear adjustment of the ocean to coherent north–south shifts of the atmosphere. The oceanic eddy effects are diagnosed by the dynamical decomposition method adapted for nonstationary external forcing. The main effects of the eddies are an enhancement of the oceanic eastward jet separating the subpolar and subtropical gyres and a weakening of the gyres. The flow-enhancing effect is due to nonlinear rectification driven by fluctuations of the eddy forcing. This is a nonlocal process involving generation of the eddies by the flow instabilities in the western boundary current and the upstream part of the eastward jet. The eddies are advected by the mean current to the east, where they backscatter into the rectified enhancement of the eastward jet. The gyre-weakening effect, which is due to the time-mean buoyancy component of the eddy forcing, is a result of the baroclinic instability of the westward return currents. The diagnosed eddy forcing is parameterized in a non-eddy-resolving ocean model, as a nonstationary random process, in which the corresponding parameters are derived from the control coupled simulation. The key parameter of the random process—its variance—is related to the large-scale flow baroclinicity index. It is shown that the coupled model with the non-eddy-resolving ocean component and the parameterized eddies correctly simulates climatology and low-frequency variability of the control eddy-resolving coupled solution.
    Description: Funding for this work came from NSF Grants OCE 02-221066 and OCE 03-44094. Additional funding for PB was provided by the U.K. Royal Society Fellowship and by WHOI Grants 27100056 and 52990035.
    Keywords: Ocean dynamics ; Ocean models ; Eddies ; Jets ; Coupled models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Climate 19 (2006): 6391–6408, doi:10.1175/JCLI3976.1.
    Description: A novel mechanism of decadal midlatitude coupled variability, which crucially depends on the nonlinear dynamics of both the atmosphere and the ocean, is presented. The coupled model studied involves quasigeostrophic atmospheric and oceanic components, which communicate with each other via a constant-depth oceanic mixed layer. A series of coupled and uncoupled experiments show that the decadal coupled mode is active across parameter ranges that allow the bimodality of the atmospheric zonal flow to coexist with oceanic turbulence. The latter is most intense in the regions of inertial recirculation (IR). Bimodality is associated with the existence of two distinct anomalously persistent zonal-flow modes, which are characterized by different latitudes of the atmospheric jet stream. The IR reorganizations caused by transitions of the atmosphere from its high- to low-latitude state and vice versa create sea surface temperature anomalies that tend to induce transition to the opposite atmospheric state. The decadal–interdecadal time scale of the resulting oscillation is set by the IR adjustment; the latter depends most sensitively on the oceanic bottom drag. The period T of the nonlinear oscillation is 7–25 yr for the range of parameters explored, with the most realistic parameter values yielding T ≈ 20 yr. Aside from this nonlinear oscillation, an interannual Rossby wave mode is present in all coupled experiments. This coupled mode depends neither on atmospheric bimodality, nor on ocean eddy dynamics; it is analogous to the mode found previously in a channel configuration. Its time scale in the model with a closed ocean basin is set by cross-basin wave propagation and equals 3–5 yr for a basin width comparable with the North Atlantic.
    Description: This research was supported by NSF Grant OCE-02-221066 (all coauthors) and DOE Grant DE-FG-03-01ER63260 (MG and SK).
    Keywords: Climate variability ; Rossby waves ; Climate models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author, 2004. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B. V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans 38 (2005): 123-146, doi:10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2004.11.003.
    Description: The role of mesoscale oceanic eddies in driving the large-scale currents is studied in an eddy-resolving, double-gyre ocean model. The new diagnostic method is proposed, which is based on dynamical decomposition of the flow into the large-scale and eddy components. The method yields the time history of the eddy forcing, which can be used as additional, external forcing in the corresponding non-eddy-resolving model of the gyres. The main strength of this approach is in its dynamical consistency: the non-eddy-resolving solution driven by the eddy forcing history correctly approximates the original large-scale flow component. It is shown that statistical decompositions, which are based on space-time filtering diagnostics, are dynamically inconsistent. The diagnostics algorithm is formulated and tested, and the diagnosed eddies are analysed, both statistically and dynamically. It is argued that the main dynamic role of the eddies is to maintain the eastward-jet extension of the subtropical western boundary current (WBC). This is done largely by both the time–mean isopycnal-thickness flux and the relative-vorticity eddy flux fluctuations. The fluctuations drive large-scale flow through the nonlinear rectification mechanism. The relative-vorticity flux contributes mostly to the eastward jet meandering. Finally, eddy fluxes driven by both the eddies and the large-scale flow are found to be important. The latter is typically neglected in the analysis, but here it corresponds to important large-scale feedback on the eddies.
    Description: Funding for this research was provided by NSF grant OCE 00–91836, by the Royal Society Fellowship, and by WHOI grants 27100056 and 52990035.
    Keywords: Eddy fluxes ; Dynamical decomposition ; Mesoscale oceanic eddies
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
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    Cambridge University Press
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 529 (2005): 71-95, doi:10.1017/S0022112005003393.
    Description: The role of mesoscale oceanic eddies in driving large-scale currents is studied in an eddy-resolving midlatitude double-gyre ocean model. The reference solution is decomposed into large-scale and eddy components in a way which is dynamically consistent with a non-eddy-resolving ocean model. That is, the non-eddy-resolving solution driven by this eddy-forcing history, calculated on the basis of this decomposition, correctly approximates the original flow. The main effect of the eddy forcing on the large-scale flow is to enhance the eastward-jet extension of the subtropical western boundary current. This is an anti-diffusive process, which cannot be represented in terms of turbulent diffusion. It is shown that the eddy-forcing history can be approximated as a space–time correlated, random-forcing process in such a way that the non-eddy-resolving solution correctly approximates the reference solution. Thus, the random-forcing model can potentially replace the diffusion model, which is commonly used to parameterize eddy effects on the large-scale currents. The eddy-forcing statistics are treated as spatially inhomogeneous but stationary, and the dynamical roles of space–time correlations and spatial inhomogeneities are systematically explored. The integral correlation time, oscillations of the space correlations, and inhomogeneity of the variance are found to be particularly important for the flow response.
    Description: Funding for this research was provided by NSF grants OCE 0091836 and OCE 03-44094, by the Royal Society Fellowship, and by WHOI grants 27100056 and 52990035.
    Keywords: Mesoscale oceanic eddies ; Large-scale currents ; Random-forcing model
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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