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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2009-05-29
    Description: Large-scale underground storage of CO2 has the potential to play a key role in reducing global greenhouse gas emissions. Typical underground storage reservoirs would lie at depths of 1000 m or more and contain tens or even hundreds of millions of tonnes of CO2. A likely regulatory requirement is that storage sites would have to be monitored both to prove their efficacy in emissions reduction and to ensure site safety. A diverse portfolio of potential monitoring tools is available, some tried and tested in the oil industry, others as yet unproven. Shallow-focused techniques are likely to be deployed to demonstrate short-term site performance and, in the longer term, to ensure early warning of potential surface leakage. Deeper focused methods, notably time-lapse seismic, will be used to track CO2 migration in the subsurface, to assess reservoir performance and to calibrate/validate site performance simulation models. The duration of a monitoring programme is likely to be highly site specific, but conformance between predicted and observed site performance may form an acceptable basis for site closure.
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  • 2
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 367: 155-170.
    Publication Date: 2012-08-09
    Description: This study examines present-day stress orientations from borehole breakout and drilling-induced fractures in 57 boreholes in the Nile Delta. A total of 588 breakouts and 68 drilling-induced fractures from 50 wells reveal sharply contrasting present-day maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) orientations across the Nile Delta. A typical deltaic margin-parallel SHmax exists in parts of the Nile Delta that are below or absent from evaporites (NNE–SSW in the west, east–west in the central Nile, ESE–WNW in the east). However, a largely margin-normal (NNE–SSW) SHmax is observed in sequences underlain by evaporites in the eastern Nile Delta. The margin-normal supra-salt SHmax orientations are often subperpendicular to the strike of nearby active extensional faults, rather than being parallel to the faults as predicted by Andersonian criteria. The high angle between SHmax and strike of these extensional faults represents a new type of non-Andersonian faulting that is even less-suitably oriented for shear failure than previously described anomalous faulting such as low-angle normal faults and highly oblique strike-slip faults (e.g. San Andreas). While the mechanics of these non-Andersonian faults remains uncertain, it is suggested that the margin-normal supra-salt orientation generated by basal forces imparted upon rafted blocks sliding down seawards-dipping evaporites.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Legionella and amebae populations in 16 cooling towers were challenged with three commercially available biocide formulations. The active agents were: a chlorinated phenolic thioether (CPTE), bromo-nitro-propane-diol (BNPD), and bromo-chloro-dimethylhydantoin (BCD, in briquette form). The towers were dosed with these biocides for approximately 4 weeks. BCD was effective against Legionella in each of nine challenge experiments, and CPTE in eight of nine challenges. BNPD was effective in only five of 11 challenges. None of the biocides had any significant effect in reducing planktonic amebae concentrations during the challenges.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: In this paper, we present a modified density-dependent Drucker-Prager Cap (DPC) modelwith a nonlinear elasticity law developed to describe the compaction behavior of pharmaceuticalpowders. The model is implemented in ABAQUS with a user subroutine. Using microcrystallinecellulose (MCC) Avicel PH101 as an example, the modified DPC model is calibrated and used forfinite element simulations of uniaxial single-ended compaction in a cylindrical die. To validate theproposed model, finite element simulation results of powder compaction are compared withexperimental results. It was found that finite element analyses gave a good prediction of both theloading-unloading curves during powder compaction and the compaction force required for makinga tablet with a specified density. Further, the failure mechanisms of chipping, lamination andcapping during tabletting are investigated by analysing the stress and density distributions ofpowders during the three different phases of the tabletting processes, i.e. compression,decompression and ejection. The results indicate that the model has excellent potential to describethe compaction process for generic pharmaceutical powders
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Sodium-polyacrylate ; calcite-dispersion ; colloidal-stability ; slurry-viscosity ; paper
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The stabilising action of sodium polyacrylate on colloidal dispersions of calcite has been investigated through measurement of viscosity, ion concentration and electrophoretic mobility. The dose of sodium polyacrylate was in the range 0 to 28 mg per g of calcite and the dispersions were prepared at a sodids content of 70% (by weight). The ionic strength of the dispersions, ca. 0.005 to 0.5, increased with dose. An increase in divalent ion concentration with dose was attributed to sodium polyacrylate-ion exchange. The stabilising action of sodium polyacrylate was evident from the sharp fall in viscosity observed at low levels of addition, and the invariance of this low viscosity throughout the remainder of the dose range. The stability of the dispersions at low doses was quantified by DLVO theory and attributed to electric double layer (EDL) repulsion. However, at higher doses, and with the resultant EDL compression, DLVO theory was found inadequate. Instead, recourse was made to steric stabilisation theories in order to explain the observed stability. A model was formulated to characterise the observed multilayer uptake of polyacrylate at higher doses. The steric repulsion evaluated using this model increased with dose and explained the observed higher dose stability. The stability over the dose ranges 〈2, 2 to 6, and 〉6 mg per g is best described as arising from, respectively, electrostatic, electrosteric and steric repulsions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    GeoJournal 26 (1992), S. 7-12 
    ISSN: 1572-9893
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Abstract Predicted changes in temperature during the next century and the possibility of substantial depletion of stratospheric ozone would represent an unprecedently rapid change in the global environment with enormous effects including important impacts on human health. These are likely to be most obvious in the Third World where some areas can expect an intensification of existing major health hazards: an increased frequency of floods and storms; changes to the availability of food and good quality domestic water supplies and climate-related changes in the ecology of insect vectors for diseases such as malaria. In developed countries significant impacts can also be anticipated. More frequent episodes of hot weather could be associated with more food poisoning and with increases in deaths from circulatory diseases. These might be offset by lower mortality rates in warmer winters. Exposure to photochemical atmospheric pollution is likely to increase. Stratospheric ozone depletion together with more exposure to sun in warmer weather could accelerate the existing rise in the incidence of skin cancer and increase the risk of cataracts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This study assesses selected impacts on tertiary activities of the anomalously hot summer of 1995 and warm period from November 1994 through October 1995 in the U.K. Over this period, the mean Central England temperature was 1.6 °C above the 1961–1990 normal, representing the highest mean 12-month temperature since the start of the Central England temperature record in 1659. The study is distinguished by its breadth of coverage, for it includes tertiary sectors and activities. Although impacts in tertiary activities are often not included in assessments of the potential impacts of climatic change, many of these activities are very important to the U.K. economy, and therefore even a small perturbation in output due to a weather extreme can have significant implications for the economy as a whole. The activities and sectors studied include energy consumption, retailing and manufacturing, construction and buildings, tourism, health, human behaviour, and fires. Both negative and positive impacts were incurred within most sectors. Net positive impacts (to the general public) were found convincingly for energy consumption and health, and clear negative impacts for buildings insurance and fires. Sectors which show clear differences in their response to winter and summer warm anomalies are energy consumption, tourism and health (greater sensitivity to winter anomalies) and buildings insurance and fires (greater sensitivity to summer anomalies). Changes in sensitivity to climate extremes may have occurred over time, and a comparison of impacts of the 1995 anomalous weather with the unusually warm dry period of 1975–1976 is approached for several series.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cooling water samples from 31 cooling tower systems were cultured for Legionella over a 16-week summer period. The selected systems were known to be colonized by Legionella. Mean Legionella counts and standard deviations were calculated and time series correlograms prepared for each system. The standard deviations of Legionella counts in all the systems were very large, indicating great variability in the systems over the time period. Time series analyses demonstrated that in the majority of cases there was no significant relationship between the Legionella counts in the cooling tower at time of collection and the culture result once it was available. In the majority of systems (25/28), culture results from Legionella samples taken from the same systems 2 weeks apart were not statistically related. The data suggest that determinations of health risks from cooling towers cannot be reliably based upon single or infrequent Legionella tests.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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