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  • 1
    ISSN: 0266-4666
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: This paper considers the distribution of the Dickey-Fuller test in a model with non-zero initial value and drift and trend. We show how stochastic integral representations for the limiting distribution can be derived either from the local to unity approach with local drift and trend or from the continuous record asymptotic results of Sørensen [29]. We also show how the stochastic integral representations can be utilized as the basis for finding the corresponding characteristic functions via the Fredholm approach of Nabeya and Tanaka [16,17], This “link” between those two approaches may be of general interest. We further tabulate the asymptotic distribution by inverting the characteristic function. Using the same methods, we also find the characteristic function for the asymptotic distribution for the Schmidt-Phillips [26] unit root test. Our results show very clearly the dependence of the various tests on the initial value of the time series.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Using individual-level credit reports merged with loan-level mortgage data, we estimate how mobility relates to home equity when labor markets are weak or strong. We control for constant individual-specific traits with fixed effects and find that homeowners with negative home equity move to other metropolitan areas more than other homeowners. We use a dynamic quantitative model of consumption, housing, employment, and mobility to interpret our findings. The model illustrates that the gain from accepting a job in another area outweighs the cost of disposing of underwater property and replicates the data well.
    Keywords: E21 ; J61 ; R23 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: U.S. consumption has gone through steep ups and downs since 2000, but the causes of these fluctuations are still imperfectly identified. We quantify the relative statistical impact of income, unemployment, house prices, credit scores, debt, expectations, foreclosures, inequality, and refinancings on consumption growth for four subperiods: the "dot-com recession" (2001-2003), the "subprime boom" (2004-2006), the Great Recession (2007-2009), and the "tepid recovery" (2010-2012). We document that the explanatory power of different factors varies by subperiods, implying that a successful modeling of this entire decade needs to allow for multiple determinants of consumption. Unemployment, income, and debt are important determinants of consumption during all four periods.
    Keywords: E21 ; E37 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has become an important model species for the study of many aspects of plant biology. The relatively small size of the nuclear genome and the availability of extensive physical maps of the five chromosomes provide a feasible basis for ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-8248
    Keywords: Cydia pomonella ; granulosis virus ; apples ; microbiological control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Cydia pomonella (L.), un ravageur important du pommier dans les vergers canadiens, est sensible au virus de la granulose. Des essais en vergers utilisant deux préparations de ce virus en Ontario, oùC. pomonella présente deux generations par année, indiquent qu'il faudrait jusqu'à sept pulvérisations pour maintenir à moins de 40% la proportion de fruits portant des infestations larvaires. En Nouvelle Ecosse, oùC. pomonella ne compte qu'une seule génération par an, deux pulvérisations furent nécessaires, quoique dans certains cas une seule a suffi. Dans certains essais, le niveau de protection des fruits égalait celui fourni par les esters phosphoriques, l'azinphos-méthyle ou le phosmet. On discute des avantages des traitements sélectifs tels que le virus de la granulose en comparaison avec l'emploi des insecticides de grande polyvalence.
    Notes: Abstract Cydia pomonella (L.), a major pest of apples in Canadian orchards, is susceptible to a granulosis virus (CpGV). Orchard trials with different formulations of CpGV in Ontario, whereC. pomonella has two generations per year, indicated that as many as seven applications of virus would be needed to maintain the percentage of fruit with deep larval entries below 4%. In Nova Scotia, where there is only one generation ofC. pomonella per year, two applications of CpGV usually were needed although, in some cases, one sufficed. The protection of fruit conferred by CpGV equalled that by the organophosphate insecticides, azinphosmethyl or phosmet, in some tests. The advantages of a selective treatment, such as CpGV, over use of broad-spectrum insecticides are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1807
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Seasonal variation in population density and heterotrophic activity (as maximum potential rate, V max, for glucose mineralization) of bacteria attached to suspended solids, of free bacteria and of total bacteria was examined in the water of the Humber Estuary, north-east England. At the principal site, which was studied over 2 yr, values of density and activity of attached and total bacteria showed marked seasonal periodicity, being low in summer and high from autumn to spring. This was a consequence of density of attached bacteria being dependent on the concentration of suspended solids, which was high in winter and low during summer. Values of density and activity of free bacteria, which were less than those of attached bacteria, showed no seasonal pattern but fluctuated irregularly and were independent of concentration of suspended solids. At two further sites, which were studied over 1 yr only, the density of bacteria varied seasonally in a similar manner, but the activity of attached and total bacteria showed no distinct seasonal pattern — this may, however, be due to limitations of the data rather than to fundamental differences between the sites studied.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-04-19
    Description: We study the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on total factor productivity (TFP) of domestic firms using a new, representative firm-level data set spanning six countries. A novel finding is that firm-level spillovers from foreign firms to domestic companies can be significantly positive, non-existent, or even negative, depending on which sectors receive FDI. When foreign firms produce in the same narrow sector as domestic firms, the latter are negatively affected by increasing competition and positively affected by knowledge spillovers. We find that the positive spillovers dominate if foreign firms enter sectors where firms are "technologically close,'' controlling for the endogeneity of their entry decision into such sectors. Positive technology spillovers also affect firms in other sectors, if those sectors are technologically close to the sectors receiving FDI. Increasing FDI in sectors that are technologically close to other sectors boosts TFP of domestic firms by twice as much as increasing FDI by the same amount across all sectors.
    Keywords: E32 ; F15 ; F36 ; O16 ; ddc:330 ; Multinationals ; Competition ; Technology ; Selection ; FDI ; TFP
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-04-17
    Description: EMU was a major step towards deeper financial integration among member states. However, diversification of equity portfolios remained limited while banking integration surged. We argue that the nature of banking integration is of first-order importance for understanding the patterns and channels of risk sharing. While EMU was associated with the creation of an integrated interbank market, as witnessed by an explosion in cross-border interbank flows, "real" banking integration (in terms of cross-border bank-to-real sector flows or banking-consolidation) remained limited. But we find that real banking integration is associated with more risk sharing, while indirect integration via interbank flows is not. Further, indirect banking integration proved to be highly procyclical, which contributed to the freeze in risk sharing after 2008. Based on this evidence, and a stylized DSGE model that allows us to explain these patterns in the data, we discuss implications for banking union. Our results show that real banking integration and capital market union are complements and robust risk sharing in the EMU requires both.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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