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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Goldfish,Carassius auratus, which lived at a temperature varying between 22° and 24° C, were exposed to cold shock,i.e., immersion in water at 2° C for 3.5 to 4.0 min. One hour, two hours, four hours, six hours and 24 hours after that treatment, cold-stressed animals were sacrificed and smears of their blood prepared. Comparisons of the differential counts of the white blood cells of these animals with those of control fish indicated that significant lymphopenia and neutrophilia occurred early, one and two hours after cessation of the cold shock (Table 1). By four hours after treatment, the counts for the experimentals and controls were not significantly different (Table 1).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Laboratory mice, offspring of CB6 F1 s, were maintained at a constant temperature of 21.0 ± 1.0° C and in constant light (LL) of 40 lux or under 12 h of light (40 lux) alternating with 12 h of darkness (LD) for 8 consecutive days. During the following 36 h, tail blood was secured from each mouse at 6-h intervals. From those samples, a differential white blood cell count, based on 100 leukocytes, was made for each animal. The relative numbers of eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes did not fluctuate rhythmically under LL or LD. The per cent distributions of lymphocytes and neutrophils did vary with circadian frequency in both LL and LD (Figs. 1, 2) The peak counts of neutrophils were found in blood sampled near midnight; high counts of lymphocytes were made in smears prepared about 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary During the summers of 1984 and 1985, adult red-spotted newts,Notophthalmus viridescens, were maintained in the laboratory at 23°±0.5°C under natural photoperiods. From each of the experimental animals, the right forelimb was amputated just proximal to the elbow. Control newts were not manipulated surgically. Eight, 15, and 22 days after the time of amputation, equal numbers of regenerating and control animals were sacrificed, and blood smears of each individual were prepared with Wright's stain. Mean differential counts of leukocytes of the two groups of newts indicated that the relative number of neutrophils increased and the relative number of lymphocytes decreased in the regenerating animals as compared to their controls (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). Earlier studies had shown that lymphopenia and neutrophilia occur in red-spotted newts treated with hydrocortisone or with ACTH or subjected to environmental stress (Bennett and Daigle 1983). Consequently, it is suggested that amputation and/or early regeneration may stimulate the increased production of hormones associated with stress in vertebrates, which may, in turn, influence regeneration, itself, and that the detailed study of the distribution of leukocytes inNotophthalmus viridescens may provide an assay with which to study the regulation of regeneration in this species.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Wird das Vorderende von Lumbricus terrestris belichtet, so zieht es der Regenwurm nach einer gewissen Zeit (Reaktionszeit) zurück. Diese Reaktionszeit wurde für dunkeladaptierte Regenwürmer um 12.00 Uhr und um 19.00 Uhr gemessen. Mittags beträgt die Reaktionszeit im Mittel 9,93 sec (308 Versuche), abends 7,13 sec (309 Versuche; p〈 0,001). Die Reaktionszeit unterliegt also tagesperiodischen Schwankungen, die im Zusammenhang mit anderen vom Regenwurm bekannten Erscheinungen biologischer Rhythmik diskutiert werden.
    Notes: Summary 1. The time necessary for the withdrawal of the anterior end of the body from an oval spot of light was found for dark-adapted earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris L., during test periods which started at 12:00 or 19:00 hours. 2. For 309 trials begun at 19:00, the average reaction time was 7.13 seconds and for the 308 begun at 12:00, it was 9.93 seconds. 3. Here is another example of the effect of a diurnal cycle on a response typical of this species, and it is discussed in regard to other indicators of biological rhythmicity in earthworms.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of comparative physiology 56 (1967), S. 376-379 
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary 1. In earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris L., the connectives between the supraesophageal and the subesophageal ganglia were severed. For these worms, locomotion and light-withdrawal were timed during periods starting at 12:00 and 19:00, E.S.T. 2. The average time taken to crawl 10 cm at 12:00 was 10.6 seconds and at 19:00, it was 11.1 seconds. The average withdrawal time at midday was 9.9 seconds and at 19:00, it was 10.3 seconds. 3. Therefore, the variations between midday and evening performances of normal worms (Bennett and Reinschmidt, 1965a and 1965b) were abolished by cutting the connectives as they were by the removal of the brain (Bennett and Willis, 1966).
    Notes: Zusammenfassung 1. Bei Lumbricus terrestris L. wurden die Nerven zwischen den Gehirnganglien und den Unterschlundganglien durchschnitten. Die Lichtreaktionszeit und die Kriechzeit von diesen Würmern wurden um 12.00 und 19.00 Uhr gemessen. 2. Um 12.00 Uhr beträgt die Liohtreaktionszeit im Mittel 9,9 sec, um 19.00 Uhr 10,3 sec. Um 12.00 Uhr beträgt die Kriechzeit im Mittel 10,6 sec und um 19.00 Uhr 11,1 sec. 3. Normale Regenwürmer sind schneller um 19.00 Uhr als 12.00 Uhr (Bennett und Reinschmidt, 1965a und 1965b). Aber Lumbricus ohne Gehirn (Bennett und Willis, 1966) wie solche mit durchtrennten Connectiven verlieren diese zwei biologischen Rhythmen.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Adult newts,Notophthalmus viridescens, were injected with suspensions of hydrocortisone acetate (experimentais) or with distilled water (controls). Forty-eight and 72 hours after treatment, blood smears were prepared, and differential counts of leucocytes were made for the experimental and control animals. At 48 hours, the distributions of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes were much the same in the two groups of newts (Table 1). However, by 72 hours after injection, increases in neutrophils and decreases in lymphocytes were obvious in the animals which had received hydrocortisone. Such changes were not seen in the controls (Table 2). The changes in the distribution of the white cells seen 72 hours after treatment are very similar to those known to occur in mammals treated with adrenal steroids and to those described earlier in two species of frogs injected with hydrocortisone. Details of some differences in the responses of the amphibians are discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Differential counts of the leucocytes of adult newts,Notophthalmus viridescens, maintained in constant darkness and at a temperature of 11.0∓0.5 ° C, were made at eight times during circadian periods. The relative numbers of white cells varied only slightly through these solar-days (Table 1). However, in animals living under the same constant conditions and injected during one of four different periods of 24-hour days with bovine ACTH, the levels of increases in neutrophils evoked by treatment with the hormone varied with solar frequency (Table 2). Decreases in lymphocytes, also apparent in ACTH-treated newts, were of similar degrees during 24-hour days (Table 2). The circadian changes in the severity of neutrophilia are discussed in relation to other cycles known forNotophthalmus.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Adult newts,Notophthalmus viridescens, were maintained in constant darkness and at a constant temperature of 3.5 °C or of 11.0 °C or of 21.0 °C. Animals of each group were sacrificed after an 8-day sojourn in their constant environments, at which time blood smears for each newt were prepared. Differential counts of leukocytes of the animals maintained at 3.5 °C and of those that lived at 21.0 °C were compared with the differential counts of the newts that lived at 11.0 °C. In the blood of animals maintained at 3.5 °C and at 21.0 °C, there were more neutrophils and fewer lymphocytes than the same types of cells in the blood of newts that lived at the intermediate temperature, 11.0 °C (Table 1). Those differences, statistically significant atP〈0.001, may indicate that the constant high and low temperatures constitute physiological stress for this species.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Während zweier Perioden im Sommer 1959 wurde die Laufaktivität von Winkerkrabben (Uca pugnax), die von Chappaquoit Beach (Massachusetts) und von Lagoon Pond, Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts) gesammelt wurden, im Laboratorium (Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole) unter konstanten Licht- und Temperaturbedingungen registriert. Chappaquoit, Lagoon Pond und Woods Hole liegen innerhalb eines Radius von etwa sechs Meilen; die Zeiten von Ebbe und Flut sind jedoch an diesen Stellen sehr unterschiedlich: Zwischen Chappaquoit und Lagoon Pond beträgt der Unterschied 4 Std, zwischen Chappaquoit und Woods Hole nur 1,5 Std. In ihrer natürlichen Umgebung am Strand läuft und frißt Uca vor der Zeit des Niedrigwassers. Am 1. Tag der Untersuchung im Laboratorium unter konstanten Bedingungen entsprachen die Phasen der Laufaktivität der beiden Gruppen den Phasen der Gezeiten an dem entsprechenden Biotop: Die Phasen der Tiere von Lagoon Pond lagen also später als die der Tiere von Chappaquoit. Allmählich wurde der Unterschied zwischen den Phasenlagen der beiden Gruppen kürzer; am 7. oder 8. Tag stimmten sie überein und fielen mit den Phasen des Mondumlaufes (Zenit oder Nadir) zusammen. Demnach werden in Anpassung an die Umwelt unter natürlichen Bedingungen (unter dem Einfluß von Ebbe und Flut) die Aktivitätsphasen durch von den Gezeiten stammende Faktoren reguliert; primär wird der Aktivitätszyklus jedoch von den Faktoren des Mondumlaufes bestimmt. Der Unterschied zwischen dem Rhythmus des Farbwechsels von Uca und dem Aktivitätsrhythmus wird diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary and Conclusions 1. The spontaneous locomotor activity of groups of fiddler crabs which were collected from two different beaches where comparable tidal events differ by four hours was recorded under constant laboratory conditions during two different periods in the summer of 1959. 2. During the first 24 hours in the laboratory, the phases of the cycles of activity of tidal or lunar-day frequency were correlated with tidal phases which obtain in the original habitats of the crabs. 3. Gradually the interval of time between peaks of activity for the two groups of animals shortened, and by the seventh or eighth day of observation, the peaks were essentially synchronous, and correlated with the times of zenith and nadir of the moon. These relationships continued through the remainder of the periods of observation. 4. These results show that although the phases of such cycles can be set in adaptive relationships with actual tidal events in the organism's natural environment, the cycles are correlated primarily with lunar events. 5. It is suggested that further study and comparison of the indicators of lunar rhythmicity, color change and locomotor activity, in this species, may be especially helpful in the working out of the mechanisms by which phases of such cycles are set and regulated.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 1. Die Zeit, die Regenwürmer (Lumbricus terrestris L.) benötigen, um auf einer schiefen (45°) Ebene 10 cm aufwärts zu kriechen, wird um 700, 1200 und 1900 Uhr gemessen. 2. Um 700 Uhr beträgt diese Zeit im Mittel 17,19 sec (446 Versuche), um 1200 Uhr 21,52 sec (475 Versuche) und um 1900 Uhr 16,49 sec (475 Versuche). Der Unterschied zwischen 700 und 1200 und der zwischen 1200 und 1900 ist statistisch gesichert (p〈0,001). 3. Diese Ergebnisse werden mit der Lichtreaktionszeit von Lumbricus verglichen.
    Notes: Summary 1. The time necessary for crawling 10 cm up an incline of 45° was found for earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris L., during test periods starting at 700, 1200 and 1900. 2. For 446 trials run in the morning, the average time was 17.19 seconds. For 475 tests done at midday, the average was 21.52 seconds, and for 475 trials run at 1900, it was 16.49 seconds. The differences between the averages for 700 and 1200 and for 1200 and 1900 are significant (p〈0.001). 3. These results and differences in light-reaction times at 1200 and 1900 are compared.
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