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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-11-10
    Description: Goals and pathways to achieve sustainable urban development have multiple interlinkages with human health and wellbeing. However, these interlinkages have not been examined in depth in recent discussions on urban sustainability and global urban science. This paper fills that gap by elaborating in detail the multiple links between urban sustainability and human health and by mapping research gaps at the interface of health and urban sustainability sciences. As researchers from a broad range of disciplines, we aimed to: 1) define the process of urbanization, highlighting distinctions from related concepts to support improved conceptual rigour in health research; 2) review the evidence linking health with urbanization, urbanicity, and cities and identify cross-cutting issues; and 3) highlight new research approaches needed to study complex urban systems and their links with health. This novel, comprehensive knowledge synthesis addresses issue of interest across multiple disciplines. Our review of concepts of urban development should be of particular value to researchers and practitioners in the health sciences, while our review of the links between urban environments and health should be of particular interest to those outside of public health. We identify specific actions to promote health through sustainable urban development that leaves no one behind, including: integrated planning; evidence-informed policy-making; and monitoring the implementation of policies. We also highlight the critical role of effective governance and equity-driven planning in progress towards sustainable, healthy, and just urban development.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-11-26
    Description: In subsistence farming populations of sub-Saharan Africa reliant on rainfed agriculture, years of low crop yields result in poorer child nutrition and survival. Estimates of such impacts are critical for their reduction and prevention. We developed a model to quantify such health impacts, and the degree to which they are attributable to weather variations, for a subsistence farming population in the Nouna district of Burkina Faso (89,000 people in 2010). The method combines data from a new weather-crop yield model with empirical epidemiological risk functions. We quantify the child mortality impacts for 1984–2012 using observed weather data and estimate potential future burdens in 2050 and 2100 using daily weather data generated by global climate models parameterized to simulate global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. For 1984–2012, crop yields below 90% of the period average were estimated to result in the total of 109.8 deaths per 10,000 children 〈5 years, or around 7122.0 years of life lost, 72% of which are attributable to unfavourable weather conditions in the crop growing season. If all non-weather factors are assumed to remain unchanged, the mortality burden related to low crop yields would increase about twofold under 1.5 °C global warming by 2100. These results emphasize the importance and value of developing strategies to protect against the effects of low crop yields and specifically the adverse impact of unfavourable weather conditions in such settings under the current and future climate.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
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