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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-12
    Description: Understanding the interactive effects of multiple stressors on pelagic mollusks associated with global climate change is especially important in highly productive coastal ecosystems of the upwelling regime, such as the California Current System. Due to temporal overlap between an El Niño event and springtime intensification of the upwelling, pteropods of the California Current System were exposed to co-occurring increased temperature, low Ωar and pH, and deoxygenation. The variability in the natural gradients during NOAA's WCOA 2016 cruise provided a unique opportunity for synoptic study of chemical and biological interactions. We investigated the effects of in situ multiple drivers and their interactions across cellular, physiological, and population levels. Oxidative stress biomarkers were used to assess pteropods' cellular status and antioxidant defenses. OA stress induced significant activation of oxidative stress biomarkers, as indicated by increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPX) but the antioxidative activity defense might be insufficient against cellular stress. Thermal stress in combination with low Ωar additively increases the level of LPX toxicity, while food availability (chorolophyll) can mediate the negative effect. On the physiological level, we found synergistic interaction between low Ωar and deoxygenation and thermal stress (Ωar: T, O2:T). Since this co-incides with the conditions in the natural settings, we can expect non-linear impact on physiological responses. On the population level, temperature was the main driver of abundance distribution, with low Ωar being a strong driver of secondary importance. The additive effects of thermal stress and low low Ωar on abundance suggest negative effect of El Niño at the population level. Our study clearly demonstrates Ωar and temperature are master variables in explaining biological responses, cautioning the use of a single parameter in the statistical analyses. Because pteropods contain high quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids, oxidative stress causes LPX, resulting in the loss of lipid reserves and structural damage of cell membranes; corroborating pteropods' extreme sensitivity to OA. Accumulation of oxidative damage requires metabolic compensation, implying energetic trade-offs under combined thermal and OA stress. Oxidative stress biomarkers can be used as an early-warning signal of multiple stress on the cellular level, thereby providing important new insights into factors that set limits to species' tolerance of multiple drivers in the natural environment, especially when mechanistically linked though energetic implications.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 629 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2140.0 kBytes
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Description: Pteropods are a group of holoplanktonic gastropods for which global biomass distribution patterns remain poorly resolved. The aim of this study was to collect and synthesize existing pteropod (Gymnosomata, Thecosomata and Pseudothecosomata) abundance and biomass data, in order to evaluate the global distribution of pteropod carbon biomass, with a particular emphasis on its seasonal, temporal and vertical patterns. We collected 25 902 data points from several online databases and a number of scientific articles. The biomass data has been gridded onto a 360 x 180° grid, with a vertical resolution of 33 WOA depth levels. Data has been converted to NetCDF format. Data were collected between 1951-2010, with sampling depths ranging from 0-1000 m. Pteropod biomass data was either extracted directly or derived through converting abundance to biomass with pteropod specific length to weight conversions. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH) the data were distributed evenly throughout the year, whereas sampling in the Southern Hemisphere was biased towards the austral summer months. 86% of all biomass values were located in the NH, most (42%) within the latitudinal band of 30-50° N. The range of global biomass values spanned over three orders of magnitude, with a mean and median biomass concentration of 8.2 mg C l-1 (SD = 61.4) and 0.25 mg C l-1, respectively for all data points, and with a mean of 9.1 mg C l-1 (SD = 64.8) and a median of 0.25 mg C l-1 for non-zero biomass values. The highest mean and median biomass concentrations were located in the NH between 40-50° S (mean biomass: 68.8 mg C l-1 (SD = 213.4) median biomass: 2.5 mg C l-1) while, in the SH, they were within the 70-80° S latitudinal band (mean: 10.5 mg C l-1 (SD = 38.8) and median: 0.2 mg C l-1). Biomass values were lowest in the equatorial regions. A broad range of biomass concentrations was observed at all depths, with the biomass peak located in the surface layer (0-25 m) and values generally decreasing with depth. However, biomass peaks were located at different depths in different ocean basins: 0-25 m depth in the N Atlantic, 50-100 m in the Pacific, 100-200 m in the Arctic, 200-500 m in the Brazilian region and 〉500 m in the Indo-Pacific region. Biomass in the NH was relatively invariant over the seasonal cycle, but more seasonally variable in the SH. The collected database provides a valuable tool for modellers for the study of ecosystem processes and global biogeochemical cycles.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2267.0 kBytes
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-05-10
    Description: Interpreting the vulnerability of pelagic calcifiers to ocean acidification (OA) is enhanced by an understanding of their critical thresholds and how these thresholds are modified by other climate change stressors (e.g., warming). To address this need, we undertook a three-part data synthesis for pteropods, one of the calcifying zooplankton group. We conducted the first meta-analysis and threshold analysis of literature characterizing pteropod responses to OA and warming by synthetizing dataset comprising of 2,097 datapoints. Meta-analysis revealed the extent to which responses among studies conducted on differing life stages and disparate geographies could be integrated into a common analysis. The results demonstrated reduced calcification, growth, development, and survival to OA with increased magnitude of sensitivity in the early life stages, under prolonged duration, and with the concurrent exposure of OA and warming, but not species-specific sensitivity. Second, breakpoint analyses identified OA thresholds for several endpoints: dissolution (mild and severe), calcification, egg development, shell growth, and survival. Finally, consensus by a panel of pteropod experts was used to verify thresholds and assign confidence scores for five endpoints with a sufficient signal: noise ratio to develop life-stage specific, duration-dependent thresholds. The range of aragonite saturation state from 1.5–0.9 provides a risk range from early warning to lethal impacts, thus providing a rigorous basis for vulnerability assessments to guide climate change management responses, including an evaluation of the efficacy of local pollution management. In addition, meta-analyses with OA, and warming shows increased vulnerability in two pteropod processes, i.e., shell dissolution and survival, and thus pointing toward increased threshold sensitivity under combined stressor effect.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-10
    Description: The widespread distribution of pteropods, their role in ocean food webs and their sensitivity to ocean acidification and warming has renewed scientific interest in this group of zooplankton. Unfortunately, their fragile shell, sensitivity to handling, unknowns surrounding buoyancy regulation and poorly described feeding mechanisms make thecosome pteropods notoriously difficult to maintain in the laboratory. The resultant high mortality rates and unnatural behaviours may confound experimental findings. The high mortality rate also discourages the use of periods of acclimation to experimental conditions and precludes vital long-term studies. Here we summarize the current status of culture methodology to provide a comprehensive basis for future experimental work and culture system development.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-05-04
    Description: The impact of anthropogenic ocean acidification (OA) on marine ecosystems is a vital concern facing marine scientists and managers of ocean resources. Euthecosomatous pteropods (holoplanktonic gastropods) represent an excellent sentinel for indicating exposure to anthropogenic OA because of the sensitivity of their aragonite shells to the OA conditions less favorable for calcification. However, an integration of observations, experiments and modelling efforts is needed to make accurate predictions of how these organisms will respond to future changes to their environment. Our understanding of the underlying organismal biology and life history is far from complete and must be improved if we are to comprehend fully the responses of these organisms to the multitude of stressors in their environment beyond OA. This review considers the present state of research and understanding of euthecosomatous pteropod biology and ecology of these organisms and considers promising new laboratory methods, advances in instrumentation (such as molecular, trace elements, stable isotopes, palaeobiology alongside autonomous sampling platforms, CT scanning and high-quality video recording) and novel field-based approaches (i.e. studies of upwelling and CO2 vent regions) that may allow us to improve our predictive capacity of their vulnerability and/or resilience. In addition to playing a critical ecological and biogeochemical role, pteropods can offer a significant value as an early-indicator of anthropogenic OA. This role as a sentinel species should be developed further to onsolidate their potential use within marine environmental management policy making.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 28, no. 2 (2015): 92-107, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.34.
    Description: Coastal ocean ecosystems have always served human populations—they provide food security, livelihoods, coastal protection, and defense. Ocean acidification is a global threat to these ecosystem services, particularly when other local and regional stressors combine with it to jeopardize coastal health. Monitoring efforts call for a coordinated global approach toward sustained, integrated coastal ocean health observing networks to address the region-specific mix of factors while also adhering to global ocean acidification observing network principles to facilitate comparison among regions for increased utility and understanding. Here, we generalize guidelines for scoping and designing regional coastal ocean acidification observing networks and provide examples of existing efforts. While challenging in the early stages of coordinating the design and prioritizing the implementation of these observing networks, it is essential to actively engage all of the relevant stakeholder groups from the outset, including private industries, public agencies, regulatory bodies, decision makers, and the general public. The long-term sustainability of these critical observing networks will rely on leveraging of resources and the strength of partnerships across the consortium of stakeholders and those implementing coastal ocean health observing networks
    Description: National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-09-22
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Earth-Science Reviews 169 (2017): 132–145, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.04.005.
    Description: The impact of anthropogenic ocean acidification (OA) on marine ecosystems is a vital concern facing marine scientists and managers of ocean resources. Euthecosomatous pteropods (holoplanktonic gastropods) represent an excellent sentinel for indicating exposure to anthropogenic OA because of the sensitivity of their aragonite shells to the OA conditions less favorable for calcification. However, an integration of observations, experiments and modelling efforts is needed to make accurate predictions of how these organisms will respond to future changes to their environment. Our understanding of the underlying organismal biology and life history is far from complete and must be improved if we are to comprehend fully the responses of these organisms to the multitude of stressors in their environment beyond OA. This review considers the present state of research and understanding of euthecosomatous pteropod biology and ecology of these organisms and considers promising new laboratory methods, advances in instrumentation (such as molecular, trace elements, stable isotopes, palaeobiology alongside autonomous sampling platforms, CT scanning and high-quality video recording) and novel field-based approaches (i.e. studies of upwelling and CO2 vent regions) that may allow us to improve our predictive capacity of their vulnerability and/or resilience. In addition to playing a critical ecological and biogeochemical role, pteropods can offer a significant value as an early-indicator of anthropogenic OA. This role as a sentinel species should be developed further to consolidate their potential use within marine environmental management policy making.
    Description: M.I. Berning is financed by the German Research Foundation Priority Programme 1158 Antarctic Research with Comparable Investigations in Arctic Sea Ice Areas (Project DFG-1158 SCHR 667/15-1).
    Keywords: Euthecosomatous pteropods ; Ocean acidification ; Calcifying organisms ; Marine ecosystem ; Carbonate chemistry
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-09
    Description: The diversity of life in the sea is critical to the health of ocean ecosystems that support living resources and therefore essential to the economic, nutritional, recreational, and health needs of billions of people. Yet there is evidence that the biodiversity of many marine habitats is being altered in response to a changing climate and human activity. Understanding this change, and forecasting where changes are likely to occur, requires monitoring of organism diversity, distribution, abundance, and health. It requires a minimum of measurements including productivity and ecosystem function, species composition, allelic diversity, and genetic expression. These observations need to be complemented with metrics of environmental change and socio-economic drivers. However, existing global ocean observing infrastructure and programs often do not explicitly consider observations of marine biodiversity and associated processes. Much effort has focused on physical, chemical and some biogeochemical measurements. Broad partnerships, shared approaches, and best practices are now being organized to implement an integrated observing system that serves information to resource managers and decision-makers, scientists and educators, from local to global scales. This integrated observing system of ocean life is now possible due to recent developments among satellite, airborne, and in situ sensors in conjunction with increases in information system capability and capacity, along with an improved understanding of marine processes represented in new physical, biogeochemical, and biological models.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 10
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Bednaršek, Nina; Tarling, Geraint A; Bakker, Dorothee C E; Fielding, Sophie; Jones, Elizabeth M; Venables, H J; Ward, Peter; Kuzirian, Alan; Lézé, Bertrand; Feely, Richard A; Murphy, Eugene J (2012): Extensive dissolution of live pteropods in the Southern Ocean. Nature Geoscience, 5(12), 881-885, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1635
    Publication Date: 2019-09-18
    Description: The carbonate chemistry of the surface ocean is rapidly changing with ocean acidification, a result of human activities. In the upper layers of the Southern Ocean, aragonite-a metastable form of calcium carbonate with rapid dissolution kinetics-may become undersaturated by 2050. Aragonite undersaturation is likely to affect aragonite-shelled organisms, which can dominate surface water communities in polar regions. Here we present analyses of specimens of the pteropod Limacina helicina antarctica that were extracted live from the Southern Ocean early in 2008. We sampled from the top 200 m of the water column, where aragonite saturation levels were around 1, as upwelled deep water is mixed with surface water containing anthropogenic CO2. Comparing the shell structure with samples from aragonite-supersaturated regions elsewhere under a scanning electron microscope, we found severe levels of shell dissolution in the undersaturated region alone. According to laboratory incubations of intact samples with a range of aragonite saturation levels, eight days of incubation in aragonite saturation levels of 0.94-1.12 produces equivalent levels of dissolution. As deep-water upwelling and CO2 absorption by surface waters is likely to increase as a result of human activities, we conclude that upper ocean regions where aragonite-shelled organisms are affected by dissolution are likely to expand.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 904 data points
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