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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Did the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event, by eliminating non-avian dinosaurs and most of the existing fauna, trigger the evolutionary radiation of present-day mammals? Here we construct, date and analyse a species-level phylogeny of nearly all extant Mammalia to bring a new perspective to this ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This is a presentation of the fundamentals of ablative TPS materials for a short course at TFAWS 2017. It gives an overall description of what an ablator is, the equations that define it, and how to model it.
    Keywords: Engineering (General); Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN45697 , Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2017); 21-25 Aug. 2017; Huntsville, AL; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies.
    Keywords: Space Transportation and Safety; Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Engineering (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN30480 , IEEE Aerospace Sciences 2016; 5-12 Mar. 2016; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW-10); 17-21 Jun. 2013; San Jose, CA; United States
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Entry Systems will play a crucial role as NASA develops the technologies required for Human Mars Exploration. The Exploration Technology Development Program Office established the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. An assessment of current entry system technologies identified significant opportunity to improve the current state of the art in thermal protection materials in order to enable landing of heavy mass (40 mT) payloads. To accomplish this goal, the EDL Project has outlined a framework to define, develop and model the thermal protection system material concepts required to allow for the human exploration of Mars via aerocapture followed by entry. Two primary classes of ablative materials are being developed: rigid and flexible. The rigid ablatives will be applied to the acreage of a 10x30 m rigid mid L/D Aeroshell to endure the dual pulse heating (peak approx.500 W/sq cm). Likewise, flexible ablative materials are being developed for 20-30 m diameter deployable aerodynamic decelerator entry systems that could endure dual pulse heating (peak aprrox.120 W/sq cm). A technology Roadmap is presented that will be used for facilitating the maturation of both the rigid and flexible ablative materials through application of decision metrics (requirements, key performance parameters, TRL definitions, and evaluation criteria) used to assess and advance the various candidate TPS material technologies.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN1676 , 10th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference; 28 Jun. - 1 Jul. 2010; Chicago, IL; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL. The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. In May of 2013 the CA250 project executed an arcjet test series in the Ames IHF facility to evaluate a phenolic-based conformal system (named Conformal-PICA) over a range of test conditions from 40-400Wcm2. The test series consisted of four runs in the 13-inch diameter nozzle. Test models were based on SPRITE configuration (a 55-deg sphere cone), as it was able to provide a combination of required heat flux, pressure and shear within a single entry. The preliminary in-depth TC data acquired during that test series allowed a mid-fidelity thermal response model for conformal-PICA to be created while testing of seam models began to address TPS attachment and joining of multiple segments for future fabrication of large-scale aeroshells. Discussed in this paper are the results.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Composite Materials
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN12786 , Annual Conference on Composites, Materials and Structures; 27-31 Jan. 2014; Cocoa Beach/FL; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In support of the CA250 project, this paper details the results of a test campaign that was conducted at the Ames Arcjet Facility, wherein several novel low density thermal protection (TPS) materials were evaluated in an entry like environment. The motivation for these tests was to investigate whether novel conformal ablative TPS materials can perform under high heat flux and shear environment as a viable alternative to rigid ablators like PICA or Avcoat for missions like MSL and beyond. A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL, and honeycomb-based Avcoat on the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV)). The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow better integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments to be used in fabrication.A novel SPRITE1 architecture, developed by the researchers at NASA Ames was used for arcjet testing. This small probe like configuration with 450 spherecone, enabled us to test the materials in a combination of high heat flux, pressure and shear environment. The heat flux near the nose were in the range of 500-1000 W/sq cm whereas in the flank section of the test article the magnitudes were about 50 of the nose, 250-500W/sq cm range. There were two candidate conformable materials under consideration for this test series. Both test materials are low density (0.28 g/cu cm) similar to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) or Silicone Impregnated Refractory Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA) and are comprised of: A flexible carbon substrate (Carbon felt) infiltrated with an ablative resin system: phenolic (Conformal-PICA) or silicone (Conformal-SICA). The test demonstrated a successful performance of both the conformable ablators for heat flux conditions between 50-500 W/sq cm. The recession and temperature profile for these materials were comparable to PICA proving them to be viable alternatives for TPS technology development for future missions.
    Keywords: Chemistry and Materials (General); Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN9849 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; 17-21 Jun. 2013; San Jose, CA; United States
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Engineering (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN9761 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; 15-17 Jun. 2013; San Jose, CA; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the site of interest. The entry environment is not always guaranteed with a direct entry, and improving the entry system's robustness to a variety of environmental conditions could aid in reaching more varied landing sites."
    Keywords: Composite Materials
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN4987 , International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW); 18-22 Jun. 2012; Toulouse; France
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Current roadmaps point to landing heavy masses (cargo, followed by manned vehicles) on Mars in the 2030's and the existing entry, descent and landing (EDL) technology will not be sufficient to facilitate such missions. In 2009 the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) established the Entry, Descent and Landing Technology Development Project (EDL TDP), to be managed programmatically at Langley Research Center (LaRC) and technically a Ames Research Center (ARC). The purpose of the project is to further the technologies required to land heavy (approximately 40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate exploration. The EDL TDP contains three technical elements. They are: 1) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) development 2) Modeling and Tools (MAT) development 3) Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP) development The primary goals of the EDL TDP TPS element is to design and develop TPS materials capable of withstanding the severe aerothermal loads associated with aerocapture and entry into the Martian atmosphere while significantly decreasing the TPS mass fraction contribution to the entry system. Significant advancements in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable heavy mass payloads to be successfully landed on the Martian surface for robotic precursors and subsequent human exploration missions. The EDL TDP TPS element is further divided into two different TPS concepts for Mars EDL those being: 1) Rigid TPS for a mid L/D aeroshell with the capability to withstand dual pulsed heating environments as high as 500 W/square cm for aerocapture and 130 W/square cm for entry 2) Flexible TPS for a deployable aerodynamic decelerator with the capability to withstand dual pulsed heating environments as high as 120 W/square cm for aerocapture and 30 W/square cm for entry NASA, along with its vendors, has begun developing and testing materials for each of the deceleration approaches. These include multi-layer rigid ablators and flexible ablative materials. In order to model the response of these types of materials, new and improved modeling techniques will be required. This presentation will outline the types of materials that are under development and illustrate the need for advancement in modeling of ablative materials.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN3114 , 4th AF/SNL/NASA Ablation Workshop; 1-3 Mar. 2011; Albuquerque, NM; United States
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