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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Did the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event, by eliminating non-avian dinosaurs and most of the existing fauna, trigger the evolutionary radiation of present-day mammals? Here we construct, date and analyse a species-level phylogeny of nearly all extant Mammalia to bring a new perspective to this ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Mars2020 entry vehicle is currently being developed by NASA to safely land its next rover on the Martian surface in 2021. During entry, the vehicle will be protected from aerothermal environments using a PICA (Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator)-tiled heatshield. PICA loses mass through surface recession and in-depth pyrolysis as it is heated. Pre-flight knowledge of heatshield mass loss is required for vehicle balancing during critical mission events. This study attempts to predict the total mass loss experienced by the Mars2020's heatshield during its entry. A grid was created over the half of the heatshield which generated 108 points across a total of 9 spokes. Aero-thermal environments were provided from CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) calculations that considered a baselined trajectory. The TPS (Thermal Protection System) stack was a build-up of composite, aluminum, composite, an HT-424 bond, followed by PICA. The FIAT (Fully Implicit Ablation, Thermal-response) 1-D analysis utilized this TPS stack and the CFD environments and was run at each grid point giving mass flux information from the point of atmospheric entry until parachute deployment. The mass flux due to recession and pyrolysis gas was summed and integrated first through time and then across the half heatshield using a polar integration tool. The mass loss results were mirrored to the other half of the heatshield to calculate total mass loss throughout the entry phase of flight. This total mass loss value and its distribution was used by entry vehicle designers to account for CG (Center of Gravity) offset during parachute descent when the heatshield is no longer losing significant mass.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN58301 , AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference (2018); 25-29 Jun. 2018; Atlanta, GA; United States|AIAA Aviation and Aeronautics Forum (Aviation 2018); 25-29 Jun. 2018; Atlanta, GA; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies.
    Keywords: Space Transportation and Safety; Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Engineering (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN30480 , IEEE Aerospace Sciences 2016; 5-12 Mar. 2016; Big Sky, MT; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies. Subsystem technologies for robotic and human missions
    Keywords: Space Transportation and Safety; Engineering (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN24168 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; 15-19 Jun. 2015; Cologne; Germany
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Entry Systems will play a crucial role as NASA develops the technologies required for Human Mars Exploration. The Exploration Technology Development Program Office established the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. An assessment of current entry system technologies identified significant opportunity to improve the current state of the art in thermal protection materials in order to enable landing of heavy mass (40 mT) payloads. To accomplish this goal, the EDL Project has outlined a framework to define, develop and model the thermal protection system material concepts required to allow for the human exploration of Mars via aerocapture followed by entry. Two primary classes of ablative materials are being developed: rigid and flexible. The rigid ablatives will be applied to the acreage of a 10x30 m rigid mid L/D Aeroshell to endure the dual pulse heating (peak approx.500 W/sq cm). Likewise, flexible ablative materials are being developed for 20-30 m diameter deployable aerodynamic decelerator entry systems that could endure dual pulse heating (peak aprrox.120 W/sq cm). A technology Roadmap is presented that will be used for facilitating the maturation of both the rigid and flexible ablative materials through application of decision metrics (requirements, key performance parameters, TRL definitions, and evaluation criteria) used to assess and advance the various candidate TPS material technologies.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN1676 , 10th AIAA/ASME Joint Thermophysics and Heat Transfer Conference; 28 Jun. - 1 Jul. 2010; Chicago, IL; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Current roadmaps point to landing heavy masses (cargo, followed by manned vehicles) on Mars in the 2030's and the existing entry, descent and landing (EDL) technology will not be sufficient to facilitate such missions. In 2009 the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) established the Entry, Descent and Landing Technology Development Project (EDL TDP), to be managed programmatically at Langley Research Center (LaRC) and technically a Ames Research Center (ARC). The purpose of the project is to further the technologies required to land heavy (approximately 40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate exploration. The EDL TDP contains three technical elements. They are: 1) Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) development 2) Modeling and Tools (MAT) development 3) Supersonic Retropropulsion (SRP) development The primary goals of the EDL TDP TPS element is to design and develop TPS materials capable of withstanding the severe aerothermal loads associated with aerocapture and entry into the Martian atmosphere while significantly decreasing the TPS mass fraction contribution to the entry system. Significant advancements in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable heavy mass payloads to be successfully landed on the Martian surface for robotic precursors and subsequent human exploration missions. The EDL TDP TPS element is further divided into two different TPS concepts for Mars EDL those being: 1) Rigid TPS for a mid L/D aeroshell with the capability to withstand dual pulsed heating environments as high as 500 W/square cm for aerocapture and 130 W/square cm for entry 2) Flexible TPS for a deployable aerodynamic decelerator with the capability to withstand dual pulsed heating environments as high as 120 W/square cm for aerocapture and 30 W/square cm for entry NASA, along with its vendors, has begun developing and testing materials for each of the deceleration approaches. These include multi-layer rigid ablators and flexible ablative materials. In order to model the response of these types of materials, new and improved modeling techniques will be required. This presentation will outline the types of materials that are under development and illustrate the need for advancement in modeling of ablative materials.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN3114 , 4th AF/SNL/NASA Ablation Workshop; 1-3 Mar. 2011; Albuquerque, NM; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: No abstract available
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: International Planetary Probe Workshop (IPPW-10); 17-21 Jun. 2013; San Jose, CA; United States
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: AIAA Thermophysics Conference; 27-30 Jun. 2011; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A conformable TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials (such as tiled Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) system on MSL. The compliant (high strain to failure) nature of the conformable ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. In May of 2013 the CA250 project executed an arcjet test series in the Ames IHF facility to evaluate a phenolic-based conformal system (named Conformal-PICA) over a range of test conditions from 40-400Wcm2. The test series consisted of four runs in the 13-inch diameter nozzle. Test models were based on SPRITE configuration (a 55-deg sphere cone), as it was able to provide a combination of required heat flux, pressure and shear within a single entry. The preliminary in-depth TC data acquired during that test series allowed a mid-fidelity thermal response model for conformal-PICA to be created while testing of seam models began to address TPS attachment and joining of multiple segments for future fabrication of large-scale aeroshells. Discussed in this paper are the results.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Composite Materials
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN12786 , Annual Conference on Composites, Materials and Structures; 27-31 Jan. 2014; Cocoa Beach/FL; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket and tile materials on shuttle) should be significantly reduced. The conformal ablator design will include a simplified design of seams between gore panels, which should eliminate the need for gap filler design, and should accommodate a wider range of allowable carrier structure imperfections when compared to a rigid material such as PICA.The Conformal TPS development project leverages the past investments made by earlier projects with a goal to develop and deliver a TRL 5 conformal TPS capable of 250 Wcm2 for missions such as MSL or COTS missions. The capabilities goal for the conformal TPS is similar to an MSL design reference mission (250 Wcm2) with matching pressures and shear environments. Both conformal and flexible carbon-felt based materials were successfully tested in stagnation aerothermal environments above 500 Wcm2 under earlier programs. Results on a myriad of materials developed during FY11 were used to determine which materials to start with in FY12. In FY12, the conformal TPS element focused on establishing materials requirements based on MSL-type and COTS Low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions (q 250 Wcm2) to develop and deliver a Conformal Ablative TPS. In FY13, development and refining metrics for mission utilization of conformal ablator technology along with assessment for potential mission stakeholders will be carried out.
    Keywords: Composite Materials
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN9855 , International Planetary Probe Workshop; 17-21 Jun. 2013; San Jose, CA; United States
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