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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Methods for single- and double-target in situ hybridization (ISH) to, cells isolated from solid transitional cell carcinomas (TCC's) of the urinary bladder are described. Single cell suspensions were prepared from solid tumors of the urinary bladder by mechanical disaggregation and fixed in 70% ethanol. Using two DNA probes specific for the centromeres of chromosomes #1 and #18, ISH procedures were optimized for these samples. Human lymphocytes and cells from the T24 bladder tumor cell line were used as controls. In lymphocyte nuclei and metaphase chromosome spreads, ISH showed two major spots for each of the probes. About 80% of the nuclei from T24 cells showed three spots for both the chromosome #1 and #18 specific probes. When nuclei from TCC's were analyzed, often the number of spots for chromosome #1, and to a lesser extent for chromosome #18, differed from the number expected on basis of flow cytometric ploidy measurements. The double target-ISH method in all cases allowed the correlation of numerical aberrations for chromosomes #1 and #18 in one and the same cell. By such analyses a profound heterogeneity in chromosome number was detected in most tumors. In order to optimize the reproductbility of the method and the interpretation of the ISH-signals, criteria for their analysis have been determined. This procedure can now be applied on a routine basis to solid tumor specimens.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A model identification methodology for structural dynamics has been applied to simulated vibrational data as a first step in evaluating its accuracy. The evaluation has taken into account a wide variety of factors which affect the accuracy of the procedure. The effects of each of these factors were observed in both the response time histories and the estimates of the parameters of the model by comparing them with the exact values of the system. Each factor was varied independently but combinations of these have also been considered in an effort to simulate real situations. The results of the tests have shown that for the chain model, the procedure yields robust estimates of the stiffness parameters under the conditions studied whenever uniqueness is ensured. When inaccuracies occur in the results, they are intimately related to non-uniqueness conditions inherent in the inverse problem and not to shortcomings in the methodology.
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: JPL, Model Determination for Large Space Systems Workshop, Volume 2; p 665-689
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Homotopy ; relaxation ; trajectory tracking ; global optimization ; roots ; nonlinear equations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Two generalized trajectory methods are combined to provide a novel and powerful numerical procedure for systematically finding multiple local extrema of a multivariable objective function. This procedure can form part of a strategy for global optimization in which the greatest local maximum and least local minimum in the interior of a specified region are compared to the largest and smallest values of the objective function on the boundary of the region. The first trajectory method, a homotopy scheme, provides a globally convergent algorithm to find a stationary point of the objective function. The second trajectory method, a relaxation scheme, starts at one stationary point and systematically connects other stationary points in the specified region by a network of trjectories. It is noted that both generalized trajectory methods actually solve the stationarity conditions, and so they can also be used to find multiple roots of a set of nonlinear equations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This paper describes the mass spectra of some di-trimethylsilyl derivatives of aromatic amines. Numerous doubly-charged ions of low relative intensity are found in all spectra. An intense doubly-charged ion is found at m/e [M - 30]/2, whereas the singly-charged counterpart is very small in all cases.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mass spectrometric behavior of the di-TMSi derivatives of diamino-,dihydroxy-and aminohydroxynaphthalenes is described. The presence or lack of doubly-charged ions in the mass spectra is correlated with substituent position. Comparison is made with the spectra of the disubstituted benzenes. Other fragmentations are discussed with supporting data from TMSi-d9 derivatized compounds.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A mass spectrometric study of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of a group of amino-hydroxy, dihydroxy and dicarboxydiphenyls has disclosed that these compounds produce a number of intense doubly-charged ions ([M - 30]/2, 5 to 27%), for which the singly-charged ions are low or absent. The derivative of 4,4′-dicarboxydiphenyl yields five such doubly-charged ions with relative intensities ⋝ 3%. The fragmentation pathways for this compound have been studied by the formation and mass spectrometry of the trimethylsilyl-d9 derivative.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Ungulate migrations are assumed to stem from learning and cultural transmission of information regarding seasonal distribution of forage, but this hypothesis has not been tested empirically. We compared the migratory propensities of bighorn sheep and moose translocated into novel habitats with those of historical populations that had persisted for hundreds of years. Whereas individuals from historical populations were largely migratory, translocated individuals initially were not. After multiple decades, however, translocated populations gained knowledge about surfing green waves of forage (tracking plant phenology) and increased their propensity to migrate. Our findings indicate that learning and cultural transmission are the primary mechanisms by which ungulate migrations evolve. Loss of migration will therefore expunge generations of knowledge about the locations of high-quality forage and likely suppress population abundance.
    Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics, Ecology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-12-13
    Description: Current earthquake early warning (EEW) systems lack the ability to appropriately handle multiple concurrent earthquakes, which led to many false alarms during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake sequence in Japan. This paper uses a Bayesian probabilistic approach to handle multiple concurrent events for EEW. We implement the theory using a two-step algorithm. First, an efficient approximate Bayesian model class selection scheme is used to estimate the number of concurrent events. Then, the Rao-Blackwellized Importance Sampling method with a sequential proposal probability density function is used to estimate the earthquake parameters, that is hypocentre location, origin time, magnitude and local seismic intensity. A real data example based on 2 months data (2011 March 9–April 30) around the time of the 2011 M 9 Tohoku earthquake is studied to verify the proposed algorithm. Our algorithm results in over 90 per cent reduction in the number of incorrect warnings compared to the existing EEW system operating in Japan.
    Keywords: Seismology
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-03-21
    Description: This study lays the groundwork for a new generation of earthquake source models based on a general formalism that rigorously quantifies and incorporates the impact of uncertainties in fault slip inverse problems. We distinguish two sources of uncertainty when considering the discrepancy between data and forward model predictions. The first class of error is induced by imperfect measurements and is often referred to as observational error. The second source of uncertainty is generally neglected and corresponds to the prediction error, that is the uncertainty due to imperfect forward modelling. Yet the prediction error can be shown to scale approximately with the size of earthquakes and thus can dwarf the observational error, particularly for large events. Both sources of uncertainty can be formulated using the misfit covariance matrix, C , which combines a covariance matrix for observation errors, C d and a covariance matrix for prediction errors, C p , associated with inaccurate model predictions. We develop a physically based stochastic forward model to treat the model prediction uncertainty and show how C p can be constructed to explicitly account for some of the inaccuracies in the earth model. Based on a first-order perturbation approach, our formalism relates C p to uncertainties on the elastic parameters of different regions (e.g. crust, mantle, etc.). We demonstrate the importance of including C p using a simple example of an infinite strike-slip fault in the quasi-static approximation. In this toy model, we treat only uncertainties in the 1-D depth distribution of the shear modulus. We discuss how this can be extended to general 3-D cases and applied to other parameters (e.g. fault geometry) using our formalism for C p . The improved modelling of C p is expected to lead to more reliable images of the earthquake rupture, that are more resistant to overfitting of data and include more realistic estimates of uncertainty on inferred model parameters.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-13
    Description: The estimation of finite fault earthquake source models is an inherently underdetermined problem: there is no unique solution to the inverse problem of determining the rupture history at depth as a function of time and space when our data are limited to observations at the Earth's surface. Bayesian methods allow us to determine the set of all plausible source model parameters that are consistent with the observations, our a priori assumptions about the physics of the earthquake source and wave propagation, and models for the observation errors and the errors due to the limitations in our forward model. Because our inversion approach does not require inverting any matrices other than covariance matrices, we can restrict our ensemble of solutions to only those models that are physically defensible while avoiding the need to restrict our class of models based on considerations of numerical invertibility. We only use prior information that is consistent with the physics of the problem rather than some artefice (such as smoothing) needed to produce a unique optimal model estimate. Bayesian inference can also be used to estimate model-dependent and internally consistent effective errors due to shortcomings in the forward model or data interpretation, such as poor Green's functions or extraneous signals recorded by our instruments. Until recently, Bayesian techniques have been of limited utility for earthquake source inversions because they are computationally intractable for problems with as many free parameters as typically used in kinematic finite fault models. Our algorithm, called cascading adaptive transitional metropolis in parallel (CATMIP), allows sampling of high-dimensional problems in a parallel computing framework. CATMIP combines the Metropolis algorithm with elements of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms to dynamically optimize the algorithm's efficiency as it runs. The algorithm is a generic Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler; it works independently of the model design, a priori constraints and data under consideration, and so can be used for a wide variety of scientific problems. We compare CATMIP's efficiency relative to several existing sampling algorithms and then present synthetic performance tests of finite fault earthquake rupture models computed using CATMIP.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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