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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 97 (1992), S. 451-452 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A new method to localise specific DNA sequences in microscopic preparations by hybridocytochemistry using fluorochrome labelled complementary RNA has been described recently (Bauman et al. 1981). The present paper describes a procedure to increase the sensitivity of this method. RNA complementary to kinetoplasts DNA of Crithidia luciliae was labelled with fluorescein and hybridised with Sephadex beads to which kinetoplast DNA or heterologous DNA had been covalently bound as well as to Crithidia luciliae preparations. The fluorescein-labelled RNA was found to hybridize specifically with homologous DNA both on the beads and in the cells. The sensitivity of the hybrid detection could be increased by applying an indirect immunofluorescence reaction using rabbit antiserum raised against the hapten fluorescein as has been described for the amplification of a direct immunofluorescence reaction by Schmitz and Kampa (1979). The complete procedure resulted in an amplification of the original specific fluorescence both on the beads and in the cells. The increase was quantified by microfluorimetry. Several aspects of the immunocytochemical amplifying reaction were quantitatively investigated using Sephadex beads to which poly(A) or DNA was coupled and FITC-labelled poly(U) or cRNA was hybridised. A 5- to 10-fold amplification was obtained both in the beads and on the cell preparations. When the amplifying steps were repeated a proportional increase in background fluorescence was observed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have prepared fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugates of cationised ferritin (CF) and have investigated the usefulness of this CF-FITC to measure the negative cell surface charge of mouse bone marrow cells by flow cytometry. CF-FITC conjugates of low fluorochrome to protein ratios (F/P ratio) gave insufficient fluorescence and/or formed large aggregates when stored. CF-FITC conjugates of high F/P ratios (above 25) bound specifically to bone marrow cells, giving sufficient fluorescence, the intensity of which differed for the different cell types. When stored at −20° C the CF-FITC was stable and could be used over prolonged periods. CF-FITC could be used to selectively enrich for pluripotent stem cells (CFU-S) and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (CFU-C) by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), although the CF-FITC binding to CFU-S and CFU-C was unexpectedly low. No correlation between CF-FITC fluorescence, cell size and electrophoretic mobility (EMP) was observed of bone marrow cells fractionated by free flow electrophoresis. Neuraminidase treatment to remove negatively charged sialic acid groups from the cell surface resulted in an increased binding of CF-FITC, although the EPM was decreased. The biotin conjugate of CF bound to bone marrow cells and could be visualised by avidin-FITC. The relative fluorescence intensity for the individual cell types showed a good correlation with the cell surface charge as determined by the EPM of the different cell types. The mechanism of binding CF-FITC to the cell surface was not by electrostatic interaction of the negative cell surface and positively charged CF because CF-FITC of F/P ratios of above 20 was negatively charged. This has been shown by theoretical calculations and determination of the pI of CF-FITC by iso-electric focussing. Binding of CF-FITC to the cell surfaces was probably caused by hydrophobic interaction between bound fluorescein molecules and lipid domains in the cell surface membrane aided by some ionic interaction. CF-biotin is still positively charged and is probably bound through electrostatic interactions with negatively charged cell surface groups. The indirect detection of bound CF-biotin with avidin-FITC of high F/P ratio results in a high fluorescence signal, which is a measure of the negative cell surface charge density, in the FACS.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The flow cytometric detection of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) performed on intact cells in suspension is a recently described method (Bauman et al. 1989). We studied the application of this method for monitoring cellular differentiation. The amount of rRNA which is taken for a good indicator of growth in size, the rate of protein synthesis and the G0–G1 transition was followed by FISH. For this purpose biotinylated single stranded RNA probes obtained by transcription from a 2.1 kb BglII-EcoRI fragment of the human 28S ribosomal RNA gene subcloned into plasmid pGEM2 were used. K-562 leukaemic cells, used as targets, were induced to differentiate by dimethyl sulfoxide, phorbol myristate acetate and hemin. In the last two cases the cell cycle analysis, growth kinetics, cellular morphology and immunophenotyping indicated differentiation into monocytic and erythroid direction, respectively. The differentiation was accompanied by a rapid increase followed by a decrease to the base level of rRNA. This was not observed in the uninduced exponentially growing control cells. Based on our results, we propose that the FC-FISH detection of the rRNA level is a valuable method to distinguish between cell subpopulations. We propose that using other probes, FC-FISH will become useful to monitor different cellular processes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The nuclear topography of pericentromeric DNA of chromosome 11 was analyzed in G0 (nonstimulated) and G1 [phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated] human lymphocytes by confocal microscopy. In addition to the nuclear center, the centrosome was used as a second point of reference in the three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Pericentromeric DNA of chromosome 11 and the centrosome were labeled using a combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunofluorescence. To preserve the 3D morphology of the cells, these techniques were performed on whole cells in suspension. Three-dimensional images of the cells were analyzed with a recently developed 3D software program (Interactive Measurement of Axes and Positioning in 3 Dimensions). The distribution of the chromosome 11 centromeres appeared to be random during the G0 stage but clearly non-random during the G1 stage, when the nuclear center was used as a reference point. Further statistical analysis of the G1 cells revealed that the centromeres were randomly distributed in a shell underlying the nuclear membrane. A topographical relationship between the centrosome and the centromeres appeared to be absent during the G0 and G1 stages of the cell cycle.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0014-4827
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1748-7692
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Adrenal function in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) was evaluated using adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests and fecal cortisol levels. The effect of ACTH administration on plasma cortisol and aldosterone levels in five free-living and 14 rehabilitated harbor seal pups was determined using enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. In free-living seals, injection of ACTH caused a significant increase in mean plasma cortisol but not of mean aldosterone levels 60 min postinjection. In these seals, mean initial plasma aldosterone was significantly higher than initial levels in rehabilitated seals, while initial cortisol levels were similar. Of the rehabilitated seals, eight died with adrenal cortical necrosis associated with herpesvirus inclusions, while six lived to be released. In the seals that were released, both mean initial cortisol levels and response to ACTH decreased through rehabilitation. In the seals that died, mean initial cortisol and response to ACTH increased through rehabilitation. The differences between initial cortisol levels in seals that lived and those that died were significant at weeks two and four of rehabilitation but not at the week of admission. There was considerable individual variation in initial plasma aldosterone levels and responses to ACTH, although initial aldosterone levels were significantly higher in rehabilitated seals that died than in seals that lived. Seals with adrenal necrosis associated with herpesvirus infection did not have decreased adrenal hormone responses to ACTH. Differences between initial hormone levels and responses to ACTH in different groups of seals may be associated with differing stress levels. Fecal cortisol assays were not a useful method of assessing adrenal function in these seals, as measured levels did not correlate with plasma cortisol levels.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0922-3371
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Inorganic chemistry 2 (1963), S. 64-67 
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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