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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: The East African-Antarctica Orogen resulted from the continent-continent collision of East and West Gondwana, or parts thereof, during the Pan-African event at c. 650-510 Ma. The collision overprinted large areas of older, mainly Mesoproterozoic, crust up to granulite facies grade in East Antarctica. The collision history is well documented by folding and thrusting, isothermal decompression and metamorphic zircon growth at c. 580-560 Ma (Pan-African I). The convergence was succeeded by an extensional phase, probably representing orogenic collapse. This Pan-African II event at c. 530-510 Ma is characterized by large-scale extensional structures, finally resulting in the post-tectonic intrusion of voluminous A2-type granitoids. In central Dronning Maud Land the Pan-African II event started with the intrusion of syntectonic igneous rocks within an overall extensional setting. Two new SHRIMP data from gabbro zircons of the Zwiesel Gabbro give ages of 521{+/-}5.6 and 527{+/-}5.1 Ma. These ages are interpreted as crystallization ages and confirm the interpretation that the gabbro was emplaced early during the Pan-African II event. The gabbro was intruded by a network of leucogranite dykes and veins. Whereas the gabbro appears entirely undeformed, the leucogranite dykes are strongly mylonitized along extensional shear zones, indicating pronounced strain partitioning of the gabbro complex. Within the leucogranite mylonites, large tension gashes developed during mylonitization, indicating very high strain rates. Quartz c-axis orientations from quartz of the tension gashes show a distinct cross-girdle that formed during pure shear deformation. Fluid inclusion data from the leucogranite mylonites and the associated tension gashes mainly reveal recrystallization-related intracrystalline CO2-dominant inclusions with relatively low densities of 〈 1 g cm-3. The fluid inclusion data are interpreted to represent the last stages of a retrograde P-T path that is characterized by simultaneous cooling and decompression during extensional exhumation, probably succeeding the collapse of overthickened crust. A comparable orogenic collapse of the East African-Antarctic Orogen is reported from other parts of the orogen, such as from western Madagascar and the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield.
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  • 2
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 206: 247-269.
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: Dronning Maud Land contains a fragment of an Archaean craton covered by sedimentary and magmatic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age, surrounded by a Late Mesoproterozoic metamorphic belt. Tectonothermal events at the end of the Mesoproterozoic and in Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian times (Pan-African) have been proved within the metamorphic belt. In western Dronning Maud Land a juvenile Mesoproterozoic basement was accreted to the craton at c. 1.1 Ga. Mesoproterozoic rocks were also detected by zircon SHRIMP dating of gneisses in central Dronning Maud Land, followed by a long hiatus for which geochronological data are lacking, an amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism and syntectonic granitoid emplacement of Pan-African age have been dated. During this orogeny older structures were completely overprinted in a sinistral tranpressive deformation regime, leading to the mainly coast-parallel tectonic structures of the East Antarctic Orogen. Putting Antarctica back in its Gondwana position, the East Antarctic Orogen continues northward in East Africa as the East African Orogen, whereas a connection to the marginal Ross Orogen at the Pacific margin of East Antarctica is suggested along the Shackleton Range. The East Antarctic-East African Orogen resulted from closure of the Mozambique Ocean and collision of West and East Gondwana, i.e. western Dronning Maud Land was part of West Gondwana. During this collision the lithospheric mantle probably delaminated, allowing the asthenosphere to underplate the continental crust and producing heat for the voluminous, typically anhydrous, Pan-African granitoids of central Dronning Maud Land.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-10-13
    Description: Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa–Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820–760 Ma, 630–595 Ma and 560–520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid-Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global ‘Terminal Pan-African’ event (560–490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1999
    Keywords: URSEIS 95, Urals, tectonics/crustal structure, geological interpretation, crustal evolution
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Periodica mathematica Hungarica 6 (1975), S. 59-67 
    ISSN: 1588-2829
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words East Antarctica ; Greenville ; Pan-African ; Rodinia ; Heimefrontfjella
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Heimefrontfjella mountains, Western Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica), are dominantly composed of Grenville-aged (∼1.1 Ga) rocks, which were reworked during the Pan -African orogeny at ∼500 Ma. Three discontinuity-bounded Grenville-aged terranes have been recognized namely (from north to south) the Kottas, Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The terranes contain their own characteristic lithological assemblages, although each is made up of an early supracrustal sequence of metavolcanic and/or metasedimentary gneisses, intruded by various (predominantly granitoid) suites. No older basement upon which the protoliths of these older gneisses were deposited has been recognized. In each terrane the older layered gneisses were intruded by various plutonic suites ranging in age from ∼1150 to ∼1000 Ma. The Vardeklettane terrane is characterized by abundant charnockites and two-pyroxene granulite facies parageneses in metabasites, whereas the Sivorg and Kottas terranes were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies grade. P–T estimates show that peak metamorphic conditions changed from ∼600  °C at 8 kbar in the south, to ∼700  °C at 4 kbar in the northern Sivorg terrane. Regional greenschist retrogression of high-grade assemblages may be of Pan-African age. The Heimefrontfjella terranes were juxtaposed and pervasively deformed during a complex and protracted period of E–W collision orogenesis in a transpressive regime at ∼1.1 Ga. This is manifest as early, gently dipping thrust-related shear fabrics (D1), succeeded by the initiation of an important (D2) steep dextral shear zone (Heimefront shear zone, HSZ), during which the early fabrics and structures were steepened and rotated in an anticlockwise sense. The HSZ is a curvilinear structure which changes from a dextral oblique strike-slip lateral ramp in the north to a steep dip-slip frontal ramp in the south, where it forms the boundary between the Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The Pan-African event is manifested as discrete, low- to medium-temperature ductile to brittle shears (D3) and numerous K/Ar cooling ages.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Structural analysis ; Bashkirian anticlinorium ; SW Urals ; URSEIS '95 profile
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Bashkirian anticlinorium of the southwestern Urals shows a much more complex structural architecture and tectonic evolution than previously known. Pre-Uralian Proterozoic extensional and compressional structures controlled significantly the Uralian tectonic convergence. A long-lasting Proterozoic rift process created extensional basement structures and a Riphean basin topography which influenced the formation of the western fold-and-thrust-belt with inversion structures during the Uralian deformation. A complete orogenic cycle during Cadomian times, including terrane accretion at the eastern margin of the East European platform, resulted in a high-level Cadomian basement complex, which controlled the onset of Uralian deformation, and resulted in intense imbrication and tectonic stacking in the subjacent footwall of the Main Uralian fault. The Uralian orogenic evolution can be subdivided into three deformation stages with differently oriented stress regimes. Tectonic convergence started in the Late Devonian with ophiolite obduction, tectonic accretion of basin and slope units and early flysch deposits (Zilair flysch). The accretionary complex prograded from the SE to the NW. Continuous NW/SE-directed convergence resulted finally in the formation of an early orogenic wedge thrusting the Cadomian basement complex onto the East European platform. The main tectonic shortening was connected with these two stages and, although not well constrained, appears to be of Late Devonian to Carboniferous age. In the Permian a final stage of E–W compression is observed throughout the SW Urals. In the west the fold-and-thrust-belt prograded to the west with reactivation of former extensional structures and minor shortening. In the east this phase was related to intense back thrusting. The East European platform was subducted beneath the Magnitogorsk magmatic arc during the Late Paleozoic collision. The thick and cold East European platform reacted as a stable rigid block which resulted in a narrow zone of intense crustal shortening, tectonic stacking and high strain at its eastern margin. Whereas the first orogenic wedge is of thick-skinned type with the involvement of crystalline basement, even the later west-directed wedge is not typically thin-skinned as the depth of the basal detachment appears below 15 km and the involvement of Archean basement can be assumed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-5217
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Notes: Abstract This paper is concerned with the optimization of base load production of a real world storage power station system. Both mathematical models and numerical techniques are presented. Dynamic Programming is used for the numerical solution. A sensitivity analysis of the results is made and a discussion of the profit of the power plant company is given.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0365-9496
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 10 (1991), S. 190-192 
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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