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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Understanding micro-seismicity is a critical question for earthquake hazard assessment. Since the devastating earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999, the seismicity along the submerged section of North Anatolian Fault within the Sea of Marmara (comprising the “Istanbul seismic gap”) has been extensively studied in order to infer its mechanical behaviour (creeping vs locked). So far, the seismicity has been interpreted only in terms of being tectonic-driven, although the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) is known to strike across multiple hydrocarbon gas sources. Here, we show that a large number of the aftershocks that followed the M 5.1 earthquake of July, 25th 2011 in the western Sea of Marmara, occurred within a zone of gas overpressuring in the 1.5–5 km depth range, from where pressurized gas is expected to migrate along the MMF, up to the surface sediment layers. Hence, gas-related processes should also be considered for a complete interpretation of the micro-seismicity (~M 〈 3) within the Istanbul offshore domain.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Abstract〈/div〉A detailed study, based on ocean‐bottom seismometers (OBSs) recordings from two recording periods (3.5 months in 2011 and 2 months in 2014) and on a high‐resolution, 3D velocity model, is presented here, which provides an alternative view of the microseismicity along the submerged section of the North Anatolian fault (NAF) within the western Sea of Marmara (SoM). The nonlinear probabilistic software packages of NonLinLoc and NLDiffLoc were used for locating earthquakes. Only earthquakes that comply with the following location criteria (e.g., representing 20% of the total amount of events) were considered for analysis: (1) number of stations≥5; (2) number of phases≥6, including both 〈span〉P〈/span〉 and 〈span〉S〈/span〉; (3) root mean square (rms) location error≤0.5  s; and (4) azimuthal gap≤180°. 〈span〉P〈/span〉 and 〈span〉S〈/span〉 travel times suggest that there are strong velocity anomalies along the Western High, with low Vp, low Vs, and ultra‐high Vp/Vs in areas where mud volcanoes and gas‐prone sediment layers are known to be present. The location results indicate that not all earthquakes occurred as strike‐slip events at crustal depths (〉8  km) along the axis of the Main Marmara fault (MMF). In contrast, the following features were observed: (1) a significant number of earthquakes occurred off‐axis (e.g., 24%), with predominantly normal focal mechanisms, at depths between 2 and 6 km, along tectonically active, structural trends oriented east–west or southwest–northeast, and (2) a great number of earthquakes was also found to occur within the upper sediment layers (at depths〈2  km), particularly in the areas where free gas is suspected to exist, based on high‐resolution 3D seismics (e.g., 28%). Part of this ultra‐shallow seismicity appears to occur in response to deep earthquakes of intermediate (ML∼4–5) magnitude. Resolving the depth of the shallow seismicity requires adequate experimental design ensuring source–receiver distances of the same order as hypocentral depths. To reach this objective, deep‐seafloor observatories with a sufficient number of geophone sensors near the fault trace are needed.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 0037-1106
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-3573
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉SUMMARY〈/div〉In the Sea of Marmara, areas of gas seepage or cold seeps are tightly related to the faults system and understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics in gas-related processes is crucial for geohazard mitigation. Although acoustic surveys proved to be efficient in detecting and locating cold seeps, temporal variability or trends in the gas-related processes are still poorly understood. Two arrays of 10 ocean bottom seismometers were deployed in the western part of the Sea of Marmara in 2011 and 2014, respectively. In addition to the local seismic events, the instruments recorded a large number of short duration events and long-lasting tremors. Short duration events are impulsive signals with duration 〈1 s, amplitude well above the noise level and a frequency spectrum with one or two narrow peaks. They are not correlated from one site to another, suggesting a very local source. Tremors consist of sequences of clustered impulsive signals lasting for minutes to more than an hour with a multipeak frequency spectrum. Based on evidence of known seepage and by analogy with volcanic and hydrothermal models, we suggest that short duration events and tremors are associated with gas migration and seepage. There is a relationship between tremors associated with gas emission and the local seismicity, although not systematic. Rather than triggering gas migration out of the seabed, locally strong earthquakes act as catalysts when gas is already present or gas emission is already initiated.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: 〈span〉〈div〉Abstract〈/div〉In the Sea of Marmara, areas of gas seepage or cold seeps are tightly related to the faults system and understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics in gas-related processes is crucial for geohazard mitigation. Although acoustic surveys proved to be efficient in detecting and locating cold seeps, temporal variability or trends in the gas-related processes are still poorly understood. Two arrays of 10 ocean bottom seismometers were deployed in the western part of the Sea of Marmara in 2011 and 2014, respectively. In addition to the local seismic events, the instruments recorded a large number of short duration events and long-lasting tremors. Short duration events are impulsive signals with duration 〈 1 s, amplitude well above the noise level and a frequency spectrum with one or two narrow peaks. They are not correlated from one site to another, suggesting a very local source. Tremors consist of sequences of clustered impulsive signals lasting for minutes to more than an hour with a multi-peak frequency spectrum. Based on evidence of known seepage and by analogy with volcanic and hydrothermal models, we suggest that short duration events and tremors are associated with gas migration and seepage. There is a relationship between tremors associated with gas emission and the local seismicity, although not systematic. Rather than triggering gas migration out of the seabed, locally strong earthquakes act as catalysts when gas is already present or gas emission is already initiated.〈/span〉
    Print ISSN: 2051-1965
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2010-12-15
    Print ISSN: 1561-8633
    Electronic ISSN: 1684-9981
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-01
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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