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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-79/26
    In: CRREL Report, 79-26
    Description / Table of Contents: A 19-year record of the annual closing and opening dates of operation of the Lake Champlain ferry at Grand Isle, Vermont, which are controlled by the lake's ice cover, was made available to CRREL. These navigation records accurately approximated the freeze-over and breakup dates for the ferry crossing area between Gordon Landing, Vermont, and Cumberland Head, New York. When compared statistically with water temperature and climatological data for the same years at nearby Lake Champlain locations, the dates allowed accurate predictions of ice formation. From nearby air temperature records, cumulative freezing degree-day (deg C) curves were plotted for each year of record, and ice formation dates and standard deviations were predicted with considerable accuracy. Several methods of predicting ice formation on Lake Champlain were attempted. The most accurate approach used a combination of water temperatures and freezing degree-days. The influence of wind speed on ice cover formation and prediction are also discussed in the report.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 21 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 79-26
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Data tabulation and collection Air temperatures 11-reezing degree-days Water temperatures Closing and opening dates Results Air temperature Freezing degree-days Water temperatures Analysis: Attempted methods of predicting ice formation Predicting air temperatures 8Summer water temperatures Fall water temperatures and freezing degree-days Wind speed influence on closing of the lake Water temperature vs surface air temperature analysis Prediction of ice-out dates Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A. Freezing degree-day curves with ice notations and watertemperature notations Appendix B. Summary
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/2
    In: CRREL Report, 80-2
    Description / Table of Contents: Winter thermal structure and ice conditions in the land-fast ice cover of Lake Champlain were studied in detail for the winters of 1975-76 and 1976-77. The lake was instrumented to a depth of 8.5 m with a string of highly calibrated thermistors attached to an ice mooring system and connected to a data logger at Shelburne Point, Vermont, during the winter of 1975-76 and at Gordon Landing on Grand Isle, Vermont, during 1976-77. This data logger automatically recorded water temperatures from the surface of the lake though snow, ice and water vertical profiles to the bottom of the lake every four hours. Pertinent meteorological parameters are presented for the appropriate measurement sites during the two winter periods, November '75-April '76, and November '76-April '77. Computations were made of freezing degree days (C) for both winters and correlated with ice formation dates. Predictions of ice growth, using the Stefan equation with an empirical coefficient, were correlated with actual ice growth. Documentation was made of the Lake Champlain Transportation Company's first attempt at wintertime navigation by ferry from Gordon Landing, Vermont, to Cumberland Head, New York, in a land fast ice cover during one of the coldest winters of this century.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 26 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-2
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Objectives Climate Site preparation and data collection Instrumentation, measurements and calibration Relocation of measurement site, Fall 1976 Visual observations, ice conditions, and pertinent photography Analysis Air temperature comparisons Degree days of freezing Prediction of ice growth Water and ice temperature Wind Solar radiation Grand Isle ferry operations 1976-77 Conclusions Recommendations Literature cited Appendix A. General observations of ice conditions on Lake Champlain
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-76/13
    In: CRREL Report, 76-13
    Description / Table of Contents: The thermal structure and ice conditions of Lake Champlain, a mid-latitude large lake, near Shelburne Point, Vermont, were studied during the winter of 1974-75. The lake was instrumented to a depth of 8.5 m with a string of highly calibrated thermistors, connected to a data logger on shore which recorded water temperatures every four hours. An ice mooring system was developed to anchor the thermistor string so that ice and water temperatures could be obtained at known levels. This temperature recording system measured vertical and horizontal variations in ice and water temperature regimes during ice formation, growth and decay. Meteorological data were measured during the winter period November 1974 through March 1975 at the site. Ice stratigraphy was determined for the ice at the site at its maximum seasonal growth for comparison with ice from St. Albans Bay (at the northern end of Lake Champlain) which had formed earlier. Correlations were determined between ice growth and accumulated degree days of freezing. The operation of a bubbler system installed near the measurement site around a service dock was observed.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: vii, 22 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 76-13
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Introduction Climate Site selection Instrumentation, measurements and calibration Installation of automatic water temperature recording system Visual observations and ice structure St. Albans Shelburne Analysis Temperature comparison Water temperature measuring system Changes in water temperature Wind Degree-days of freezing Prediction of ice formation Bubbler system Conclusions Recommendations Literature cited
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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