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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-08
    Description: In many species of finfish, females exhibit higher growth rates than males and achieve larger sizes. In addition, in some species, males mature before reaching marketable size. Therefore, there is great interest from the fish farmers to produce all-female stocks. In this project tried to reversing the sex of rainbow trout larvae by 17 estradiol and direct method, further more finding the optimum dose of this natural estrogen for endocrine sex reversion of Rainbow trout (O. mykiss). Four experimental treatments were designed with doses of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kgf. Trout which treated with 40 mg/kgf yielded 96% female and greatest growth.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-16
    Description: The main goal of anesthesia in rainbow trout is decrease mobility and reduce stress of fish while breeding, and also facilitate operation such as manipulation to Tagging, Biometry, Sorting, Inspection and Sampling for pathology test. In the present study, Aqueous and alcoholic extract of tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) for Anaesthetizing Rainbow trout (Oncohrynchus mykiss) in 3 weight groups: fry (less than 80 g), growing(about 200 g) and breeding(larger than 1500g) were used. The effective dose of tobacco in treatments 200, 400, 800 and 1600mg/lit in aqueous and 0.7, 1, 1.7 and 3.5mg/lit in alcoholic extract were tested. Totally, we can say that tobacco extract Anaesthetizes the rainbow trout in less than 3 minutes and recovery time is less that 5 minutes. Regarding to anesthetizing time, recovery time and fish relaxing during anesthesia, aqueous extract applies more gentle anesthesia in rainbow trout, and dose 200 to 800 mg/lit of aqueous extract were more successful. Also Regarding to significant correlation between doze and Anesthetics extremity and recovery time (P〈0.05), lower dose of tobacco extract can be used to making fish calm for transportation.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: In order to perform the project, 446 samples of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) from 24 different regions in Iran were collected. About 2-3 g of caudal fin samples was collected from each specimen and preserved in absolute ethyl alcohol and then transferred to the genetic laboratory. Genomic DNA was extracted using the phenol-chloroform method and then DNA content and quality was determined using spectrophotometry and agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of genomic DNA fin samples was carried out using 10 pairs of microsatellite primers. All PCR products were electrophoresed on 6% polyacrylamide gel and stained with silver nitrate. Following the scoring of alleles, all parameters including allelic frequency, effective number of allele, observed and expected heterozygosity, shanon index, measurement of similarity and genetic distance and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, Fst , Rst and gene flow were calculated using AMOVA analysis in the GenAlex and Popgene programs. The results showed that 8 pairs of microsatellite primers were polymorphic. In total, 50 alleles were determined with the range size of 64-280 bp. The locus omyf had maximum number of allele (26) and loci OTSG 474 and Strurruta58 had minimum number of allele (5). The observed heterozygosity was between 0.86 and 0.964. Hardy-Weinberg departure was observed for all loci from farms 18, 15, 4, E20 and 21 and were disequilibrium (P〈0.05). The farms 14, 8, 7 and 6 were equilibrium at 3 loci, but showed disequilibrium in other loci. The other farms were equilibrium at 1 or 2 loci and disequilibrium at 8 or 9 loci. The FST results showed that maximum FST (0.24) were between farms 1 and 11in which had minimum of gene flow (3.7). Minimum FST (0.04) were between farms 8 and 9 in which had maximum of gene flow (346). Based on the results of AMOVA analysis, significant differences were detected between all farms (P〈0.01). Furthermore, based on Nei 's standard (1972) maximum genetic distance (0.89) were observed between farms 2 and 11 and maximum genetic similarity (0.15) were detected between farms 3 and 4. This result suggests that the unique genetic variation of rainbow trout in hatchery farms of Iran represents a highly valuable genetic resource and provide useful information for creating a based population in the future breeding programs.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-08
    Description: Inthisstudy, Iranian and French male and female Oncorhynchus mykiss broodstocks were invided into two groups 50 and 24 respectivelyin Research center of genetic and breeding of coldwater fishers, Yasouj,Iran and the genetic structure of them was investigated using 6 microsatellite markers. Along with broodstock maturation, fertilization 1:1(female:male) were randomly assigned and occurred in25 of12Iranian andFrench treatment respectively. Reproductive parameters were recordedfor the whole family.Average number of observed alleles in Iranian and French stocks was 6.68 and 6.83, respectively.Average number of effective alleles in Iranian and French stocks was 3.13 and 3.45 respectively.Fixation index Fstwas calculated based on allelic frequency between two stocks was 0.058 with significant difference between 2 stocks. Eyed percentage for french broodstock calaulated zero and deleted. Fertilization rate(100-0), the eyed percentage (98-0), The hatch rate(98- 0),the averagefecundity4114.708, the average eggs size 4.88 mm, Survivalinthe first three months 19-73% calculated for Iranian broodstocks. Considering the quality of eggs and larvaeat different stages and selection between the different family and the within family remained 10 treatments and are keptas future broodstocks. Therelationship between fecundity-egg size, fecundity-weight, fecundity-length, egg sizeweightwas performed using regression. The results showed that Fecundity wasinfluenced more byweight and productivelength. The research is beginning to IDthe broodstockin our country.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Residual level of 17- Beta Stradiol and progesterone hormones in rainbow trout fish plasma were measured during different period using RIA method. Blood sampling from abdominal aorta were taken from 70 individual of female fishes (100±11 g) which had been exposed to hormone at 0.5, 1,2,4,8,12,24 and 168 h (7 groups) compared with control group which was not exposed to this hormone. Results showed that plasma hormones measurement in different fish groups after exposing had significant differences (P〈0.01) and the highest and lowest 17-Beta Stradiol hormone residue were observed in fishes that exposed 0.5h and 168h to hormone respectively (121±9 ng. ml^-1 and 3±0.9 ng. ml^-1) but there is no any differences between fishes exposed 168h to hormone and control group. Also the highest progesterone hormone level were measured in fishes 0.5 an 1h exposed and the lowest one was in fishes 168 h exposed. The range of progesterone hormone were between 0.3 to 1.1 ng .ml^-1 and significant increasing of this hormone levels were obtained in fishes exposed to hormone 4 to 24h (P〈0.01). As consequence these hormone can not residue in fishes for a long time and maximum after one week the levels back to the normal.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: Rainbow trout is only species of cold water fishes which is rearing and propagation in Iranian fishery farms. Along of develop aquaculture industries increase request of best produces such as trout eyed eggs and larva. For this reason fishery farmers must be to provide that the way of import of other countries, such as: Denmark, Norway and France. As for this importance subject and unknown basic information about preference ratio for doing it, we needed to study about that to answer the suppliant questions. In this study carried out 3 test groups (3 treatments with 3 repetitions) and compared specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor (CF) and survival rate (SVR) between in this groups. Statistical analysis were significantly difference of increase rate of length and weight in French group with other groups (p〈0.05). Compared of main factors (SGR, CF, SVR) in French test group were significantly difference with other groups (p〈0.05). Survival rate percentage in Iranian treatments (SVR=%67) were significantly with the others (p〈0.05). This ratio respectively in Danish and French treatment was %54 and %48.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-09-13
    Description: Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (initial body weight 14 ± 0.25 g) were fed diets [crude protein 420 g/kg; gross energy 16.8 MJ/kg dry matter; crude fat 110 g/kg] containing deficient, adequate or excessive amounts of vitamin C and folic acid to investigate the potential nutritional effects on growth factors. A growth trial was conducted over 9 wks at a water temperature of 12 ± 1 °C. Four semipurified diets were supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 90 mg /kg vitamin C and 0, 1, 2 and 3 mg/kg folic acid and were fed to fish in triplicate tank for 9 wks. At the end of the growth trial, the percent of survival, final body weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate were measured. The results that growth factors were significantly (P〈0.05) affected by dietary vitamin levels. Inclusion levels of 2 mg/kg dietary folic acid and 60 mg/kg dietary vitamin C is acceptable, for use in rainbow trout diets, under favorable economic conditions. This study shows that increasing dietary folic acid and vitamin C could improve growth performance in juvenile rainbow trout.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Breeding has moved beyond the point of simply propagating random stock. Genetic potential can be improved by establishing and crossing genetically defined strains, crossing species and manipulating gametes. Some of these activities require cryopreservation of semen. Cryopreserved sperm could also be a means of exchange of genetic material between locations and populations when transportation of live fish is restricted. In this study we had a survey on rainbow trout sperm quality in Genetic and Breeding Center for Coldwatwr Fishes, Shahid Motahari, Yasouj. Then Cryopreservation trials on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sperm were carried out using six basic extenders. Egg batches of 25 g were inseminated with semen frozen in five 0.5-ml straws. Thowing temperature of cryopreserved sperm also was tested. In anather trial we investigate different cryoprotectant. The result showd that the best period for sperm collection in this center was from Novamber to January. The best extender based on sperm motility parameters were extender 2 and 1 with 57.2 and 56.9% fertilisatin rates, respectively. So this two extender were used in the further experiments. The best thowing temperathre was 25°C in 30s. Testing different cryoprotectant, adding 10% methanol to extender 1 gave the highest fertilization rate (64.6%) among cryoprotectant that used with this extender. In the other extender (2) adding 5% DMSO and mixture of 5% DMSO and 1% glycerol gave the highest fertilization rates (64.8% and 67.0%, respectively). In conclusion using extender 1 and 2 with mentioned cryoprotectant and thowing rate of 25°C in 30 s was recammended for rainbow trout sperm cryopreservation.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: Considering the importance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in supplying required protein of people and effort to increase the efficiency of these fish reproduction, some related factors such as sperm quality and potential fertility of male are necessary. The aim of this study was to find out the effects of different dosages of Arginine on the biochemical parameters (including LDH, AST, ALT, ALP, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, chloride, calcium, sodium, Potassium, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, fructose, glucose, total protein and pH) of rainbow trout seminal plasma. For this purpose, five practical diets (each consisting of 3 triplicates) were supplemented with Arginine at 0.00 (Control), 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00%. Broodstock feed last for 90 days. At the end of the feeding period one fish was captured from each replicate in order to collect their semen. Results indicate that there were no significant differences in LDH, ALP, Fe^2+ and P content among different treatments. The lowest level of AST and ALT and the highest level of Ca^2+ and Mg^2+ ions were observed in the treatment fed with 1.50% of Arginine which showed significant differences with other treatments (p〈0.05). Moreover, the amount of Cl^-, Na^+ and K^+ ions were significantly increased in the seminal plasma in fish which were fed on diets containing arginine in comparison to control. As the amount of Arginine were increased, the levels of uric acid stepped up significantly in contrast to the urea and glucose. The highest amounts of cholesterol, fructose and total protein were observed in the treatments fed on 2.00, 0.50 and 1.00% of Arginine, respectively, that showed significant differences with other treatments (p〈0.05). The highest pH value was assayed in the 1.50% of Arginine treatment. The results of the Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant positive correlation between Ca^2+ and Mg^2+ ions and Na^+ with K^+ and Clions (r=0.750, r=0.769 and r= 0.938, p〈0.01), respectively. On the other hand, a significant negative correlation between cholesterol with Cl^-, Na^+, K^+, ALT and LDH (r=- 0.764, r=-0.724 and r=-0.728, p〈0.01) and (r=-0.531 and r=-0.560, p〈0.05) and also a significant positive correlation between K^+ and Clions (r=0.836, p〈0.01) were observed. Finally, it can be expressed that the levels of most of the ions were increased and there was a reduction in the levels of enzymes in seminal plasma of fish which were fed with practical diet including 1.5% of Arginine. So it can be recommended that adding this value of Arginine to the diets of rainbow trout broodstock, would improve the sperm quality which results in the enhancement of efficiency in rainbow trout reproduction.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-14
    Description: This study was conducted to codify the guideline and indexes of broodstock management in salmonid fish and cryopreservation, selective breeding and sex reversal in hatchery to attain responsible aquaculture development. Cryopreservation includes of sperm and egg in term of economic is important in aquaculture. In this report mentioned the type and name of material. All female and sex reversal fish are produced by steroid hormone which mentioned in this report. Selective breeding include individual selection and family selection which could be used for genetic improvement of fish.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Management
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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