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  • 1
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Different osmotic solutions, with or without low quantities of added NaCl, were tested to evaluate their effects on the characteristics of the osmosed apples (chosen in our experiences as a fruit “model”). Water loss and water activity of final product were affected not only by the aw of the osmotic agent but also by the gain of solids in the sample. At the same time of treatment, solid gain depended on chemical composition of the syrups and the shape of the samples. Addition of small quantities of NaCl to osmotic solutions increased the driving force of the drying process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-09-18
    Description: The radiometric quality of LANDSAT 4 TM data for the classification and identification of Earth surface features was evaluated. Techniques employed in the evaluation included clustering, data compression (linear transformations), multispectral distance measures, and hierarchical classification methods. TM and MSS data for the Chicago, Illinois test site were studied. In order to determine the radiometric quality of the TM thermal data for temperature mapping of surface water, a test site was selected within the area covered by the TM scene (Scene ID: 40101-16025) gathered over Illinois. This site was chosen because it includes a surface water body with a large range of temperatures, i.e., a cooling pond for the Dresden nuclear power plant and the junction of two rivers.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LANDSAT-4 Sci. Characterization Early Results, Vol. 3, Pt. 2; p 321-358
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Skylab and LANDSAT MSS data were analyzed using computer-aided analysis techniques (CAAT). Results indicated that the middle infrared wavelength bands of the Skylab S-192 scanner would allow effective discrimination between snowcover and water-droplet clouds, whereas the limited spectral response of the LANDSAT-1 or 2 scanners do not allow such spectral discrimination. Five spectral classes of snowcover were defined and mapped. These classes were found to be related to differences in the proportion of snow and forest cover in the individual resolution elements.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: PAPER-21 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Operational Appl. of Satellite Snowcover Observations; p 295-311
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: LANDSAT frames were geometrically corrected and data sets from six different dates were overlaid to produce a 24 channel (six dates and four wavelength bands) data tape. Changes in the extent of the snowpack could be accurately and easily determined using a change detection technique on data which had previously been classified by the LARSYS software system. A second phase of the analysis involved determination of the relationship between spatial resolution or data sampling frequency and accuracy of measuring the area of the snowpack.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: PAPER-20 , NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Operational Appl. of Satellite Snowcover Observations; p 279-294
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The spectral response (air-water interface reflectance and water-volume scattering) of turbid river water (99 mg/liter suspended solids) and relatively clear lake water (10 mg/liter suspended solids) was measured in situ with a field spectroradiometer. The influence of the river bottom on the spectral response of the water also was determined by using a modified Secchi disc approach. The results indicated that turbid river water had a higher spectral response than clear lake water (about 6 percent) in the red (0.6-0.7 micron) and near-infrared (0.7-0.9 micron) portions of the spectrum. Also, the reflectance characteristics of the river bottom did not influence the spectral response of the turbid river water when the water was deeper than 30 cm
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing; 43; May 1977
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: A method of measuring temperatures of selected ground-cover types using remotely sensed multispectral scanner data and a layered classification approach is described. A brief review of radiation theory is presented to show that for the wavelength bands and temperature ranges involved in remote sensing applications, a linear calibration function can be satisfactorily utilized. An example of the application of the layered classifier for temperature mapping of water is shown.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience Electronics; GE-14; Apr. 197
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and supervised classifiers on test data. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes. A temperature-mapping experiment was carried out for a cooling pond to test the quality of thermal-band calibration. Overall TM data quality is very good. The MSS data are noisier than previous LANDSAT results.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ESA IGARSS 84. Remote Sensing: From Res. Towards Operational Use, Vol. 1; p 85-92
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Radiometrically and geometrically corrected TM data from three different geographic locations were examined. Histograms were inspected for each band to determine the dynamic range of the data, the shape of the distributions, and to verify whether empty bins were introduced by the radiometric correction process. The effect of geometric correction on the radiometry of the resampled pixels was determined. The information content between TM and MSS data sets were compared and the TM data were used to map the thermal effluent discharge into a river ecosystem from a nuclear thermal power plant, and application only possible previously only possible through the acquisition of thermal infrared scanner data from aircraft altitudes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center LANDSAT-4 Sci. Characterization; 8 p
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Landsat-4 satellite Thematic Mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been analyzed in order to ascertain data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations have tested band-to-band registration accuracy, and the TM's overall system resolution was evaluated for the case of image objects with high contrast, sharp edge responses. The information content evaluation employed clustering, principal components, and the transformed divergence separability measured on data from Iowa and Chicago, Illinois. The MSS classification analysis compared MSS and TM information contents for a large number of science classes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-09-13
    Description: A detailed spectral analysis is conducted of thematic mapper and MSS data for an area near Des Moines, Iowa. Data are utilized from 7 blocks distributed throughout the area which included agricultural, forest, suburan, urban, and water scene types. The blocks are processed using a clustering algorithm to produce up to 18 cluster groupings for each block. Each cluster class is then identified with a ground-cover class using aerial photography and maps of the area. The clusters from each of the 7 blocks are inspected with regard to separability, mean, and variances. The separability measure used in the transformed divergence function or processor measures the statistical distance between classes based on class means and covariance matrices. The measure has a maximum value of 2,000 and the minimum of 0. Spectrally, very close classes will typically have values as low as 50 to 500.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center LANDSAT-4 Sci. Invest. Summ., Including Dec. 1983 Workshop Results, Vol. 2; p 1-6
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