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  • 1
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Economic convergence exists when two or more economies tend to reach a similar level of development and wealth. The study of convergence is an important topic because besides being useful for the debate between different theories, it can respond several inquiries such as if the distribution of income between economies has become more equal over time and if poor economies are catching up with the rich. Latin American countries are characterized by having few language barriers, similar culture, religion and common history. So convergence could be expected. However, literature about convergence in Latin America is scarce and preliminary analysis shows that divergence exists in the region. The thesis tries to fill in the gap by covering theoretical, historical and statistical evidence of convergence in the region during 106 years, from 1900 to 2005. The thesis uses a neoclassical growth model based on Solow and Ramsey models. After revising the economic history of 32 countries, several groups were identified and convergence was expected to occur. Different concepts of convergence are tested inside each group through graphs, single cross section regressions and panel data estimations. In general, the results show a success with the grouping. However, the groups that converged under all concepts are those composed by countries that have succeeded in industrializing and/or were able to build strong institutions that could promote welfare and economic growth in a globalization context. The speed of convergence for those countries is around 2%. It is also found that integration processes have not helped to accelerate convergence.
    Keywords: O47 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Convergence ; Latin America
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper provides a review of the literature on the reasons and consequences of international migration. The principal determinants of migration are analyzed and it is seen that educated people from developing countries are more likely to migrate for several reasons (i.e. network determinants, costs of moving, pull factors and push factors). Looking into the empirical data, the global trend is that emigration of educated people (usually called brain drain ) has increased a lot. This trend implies that industrialized countries are importing highly skilled people from developing countries and this will certainly have important consequences for developing countries in the long run. Some researchers argue that developing countries will loose, since the most qualified people leave and stop contributing to their country. Others say that the global trend can be beneficial because positive spillovers will be created; in the sense that developing countries will experience higher investments in human capital ( brain gain ). Empirical findings show that these spillovers depend on the probability to migrate and the stock of human capital that a country has. Finally another group of researchers argues that this process is inevitable, and barriers to migration should be abolished in order to reap the benefits for both sending and receiving countries as well as the migrants themselves.
    Keywords: F22 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Migration ; Brain Drain ; Brain Gain
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las reformas educativas de los noventas cambiaron los mecanismos de asignación del gasto educativo en América Latina. Sin embargo, estas reformas no fueron seguidas por estudios que examinen los resultados sobre equidad. La ausencia de análisis sobre equidad en el financiamiento educativo está obstaculizando el diseño de políticas públicas que permitan mejorar la asignación de estos recursos. En el caso de Bolivia, si bien el Programa de Reforma Educativa y la Estrategia Boliviana de Reducción de la Pobreza han declarado dedicar una partida presupuestaria significativa a la educación escolar, pareciera que estos recursos no llegaron a la población objetivo. En ese sentido, el fin del estudio es analizar la asignación del gasto educativo escolar público entre municipios a través de distintos conceptos de equidad y, a partir de ello, se pretende generar criterios de asignación que permitan disminuir las inequidades actualmente existentes. El estudio evalúa la equidad horizontal, equidad vertical e igualdad de oportunidades. Los resultados señalan que los componentes del gasto educativo que controla el gobierno central están promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal; en cambio, aquellas variables que controlan los municipios la están limitando. Los criterios de asignación basados en localización geográfica y pobreza están promoviendo la equidad vertical, pero no coinciden con las necesidades educativas. Finalmente, los resultados muestran que no existe igualdad de oportunidades; sin embargo, el gasto descentralizado influye positivamente al rendimiento académico, en especial en los grupos de estudiantes indígenas y niñas. Los resultados del estudio sugieren que es necesaria una redistribución del gasto centralizado en base a criterios de necesidades educativas y rendimiento académico. Además, es necesario incrementar y focalizar el gasto descentralizado con el objetivo de reducir las influencias negativas de la familia, como la pobreza y los niveles bajos de educación de los padres.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Gasto educativo ; Equidad ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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