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  • 1
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    In:  [Paper] In: 2. Baltic Earth Conference: The Baltic Sea in Transition, 11.-15.06.2018, Helsingor, DK . 2nd Baltic Earth Conference: The Baltic Sea in Transition. Helsingør, Denmark, 11 to 15 June 2018 Conference Proceedings ; pp. 175-176 .
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-01-13
    Description: Optic technologies and methods/procedures are established across all areas and scales in limnic and marine research in Germany and develop further continuously. The working group “Aquatic Optic Technologies” (AOT) constitutes a common platform for knowledge transfer among scientists and users, provides a synergistic environment for the national developer community and will enhance the international visibility of the German activities in this field. This document summarizes the AOT-procedures and -techniques applied by national research institutions. We expect to initiate a trend towards harmonization across institutes. This will facilitate the establishment of open standards, provide better access to documentation, and render technical assistance for systems integration. The document consists of the parts: Platforms and carrier systems outlines the main application areas and the used technologies. Focus parameters specifies the parameters measured by means of optical methods/techniques and indicates to which extent these parameters have a socio-political dimension. Methods presents the individual optical sensors and their underlying physical methods. Similarities denominates the common space of AOT-techniques and applications. National developments lists projects and developer groups in Germany designing optical hightechnologies for limnic and marine scientific purposes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Despite its importance for the global oceanic nitrogen (N) cycle, considerable uncertainties exist about the N fluxes of the Arabian Sea. On the basis of our recent measurements during the German Arabian Sea Process Study as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) in 1995 and 1997, we present estimates of various N sources and sinks such as atmospheric dry and wet depositions of N aerosols, pelagic denitrification, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and advective N input from the south. Additionally, we estimated the N burial in the deep sea and the sedimentary shelf denitrification. On the basis of our measurements and literature data, the N budget for the Arabian Sea was reassessed. It is dominated by the N loss due to denitrification, which is balanced by the advective input of N from the south. The role of N fixation in the Arabian Sea is still difficult to assess owing to the small database available; however, there are hints that it might be more important than previously thought. Atmospheric N depositions are important on a regional scale during the intermonsoon in the central Arabian Sea; however, they play only a minor role for the overall N cycling. Emissions of N2O and ammonia, deep-sea N burial, and N inputs by rivers and marginal seas (i.e., Persian Gulf and Red Sea) are of minor importance. We found that the magnitude of the sedimentary denitrification at the shelf might be ∼17% of the total denitrification in the Arabian Sea, indicating that the shelf sediments might be of considerably greater importance for the N cycling in the Arabian Sea than previously thought. Sedimentary and pelagic denitrification together demand ∼6% of the estimated particulate organic nitrogen export flux from the photic zone. The main northward transport of N into the Arabian Sea occurs in the intermediate layers, indicating that the N cycle of the Arabian Sea might be sensitive to variations of the intermediate water circulation of the Indian Ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    Elsevier
    In:  Marine Chemistry, 53 . pp. 41-49.
    Publication Date: 2017-08-18
    Description: During the EGAMES (Evasion of GAses from the MEditerranean Sea) expedition in July 1993 we determined the concentrations of nitrous oxide and methane in the atmosphere and in the surface waters of the Aegean Sea, the northwestern Levantine Basin, the eastern Ionian Sea and the Amvrakikos Bay. Both gases were found to be supersaturated in all sampled areas. Nitrous oxide was homogeneously distributed with a mean saturation of 105 ± 2%, showing no differences between shelf and open ocean areas, whereas methane saturation values ranged from about 1.2 times (northwestern Levantine Basin) to more than 5 times solubility equilibrium (Amvrakikos Bay estuary). Therefore the Aegean Sea and the adjacent areas were sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane during the study period.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    AGU
    In:  Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10 . pp. 197-207.
    Publication Date: 2018-02-20
    Description: We determined atmospheric and dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) in the surface waters of the central North Sea, the German Bight, and the Gironde estuary. The mean saturations were 104 ± 1% (central North Sea, September 1991), 101 ± 2% (German Bight, September 1991), 99 ± 1% (German Bight September 1992), and 132% (Gironde estuary, November 1991). To evaluate the contribution of coastal areas and estuaries to the oceanic emissions we assembled a compilation of literature data. We conclude that the mean saturations in coastal regions (with the exception of estuaries and regions with upwelling phenomena) are only slightly higher than in the open ocean. However, when estuarine and coastal upwelling regions are included, a computation of the global oceanic N2O flux indicates that a considerable portion (approximately 60%) of this flux is from coastal regions, mainly due to high emissions from estuaries. We estimate, using two different parameterizations of the air-sea exchange process, an annual global sea-to-air flux of 11–17 Tg N2O. Our results suggest a serious underestimation of the flux from coastal regions in widely used previous estimates.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Atmospheric and dissolved methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in the unique coastal ecosystem of the Bodden waters, including the western Oder estuary, (southern Baltic Sea) during five campaigns between 1994 and 1997. The CH4 saturations, ranging from 105-15 500%, showed great spatial and temporal variability with maximum values in September and minimum values in December. The N2O saturations were in the range of 91-312% with a maximum in March. Enhanced concentrations of both gases were observed only in the western Oder estuary near the mouth of the Peene River. Thus, we conclude that the distributions of CH4 and N2O in the investigated Bodden waters are, directly or indirectly, linked to the Peene River runoff and not to the Oder River. Our estimate of the annual CH4 emissions from the Bodden waters to the atmosphere indicates a significant contribution (c. 17%) to the overall CH4 emissions from the Baltic Sea. In contrast, the Bodden waters represent only a small source for atmospheric N2O. CH4 production rates estimated from sediment slurry experiments revealed a significant spatial variability and indicated that methanogenic activity was related to acetate consumption in the surface sediment layer. Sedimentary CH4 production might depend on different amounts of accumulation of organic material. (C) 1998 Academic Press
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    In:  Progress in Oceanography, 65 . pp. 145-158.
    Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Description: Despite their importance for the global oceanic nitrogen (N) cycle, estimates of N fluxes in the Arabian Sea remain in considerable uncertainty. In this report, we summarize current knowledge of important processes, including denitrification, N2 fixation and nitrous oxide emissions. Additionally, we discuss anthropogenic impacts on the N cycle in the region. Existing studies suggest that the Arabian Sea is a significant source of N2O, and a major sink for fixed-N mainly due to enhanced rates of denitrification that occur in suboxic portions of the water column in the Arabian Sea. Sedimentary denitrification is small compared to water column denitrification, and additions of fixed-N via N2 fixation also are small compared to pelagic denitrification. As a consequence, the fixed-N budget of the Arabian Sea is dominated by an advective supply from the south, and by the sink arising from pelagic denitrification. Although relatively small compared to the advective supply, inputs of fixed-N from runoff and from the atmosphere may have significant impacts on surface waters and on the coastal waters of western India, and these inputs are rising because of human activities. Overall, the Arabian Sea’s nitrogen cycle is likely to respond sensitively to climate change and, in turn, have an impact on climate via its N2O and denitrification components.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    In:  [Invited talk] In: Joint Chinese-German Workshop on Land-Sea Interactions along Temperate-Tropical Gradients in Chinese Coastal Waters, 06.05, Beijing, China .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    Elsevier
    In:  Atmospheric Environment, 40 (1). pp. 198-199.
    Publication Date: 2017-12-12
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    In:  (Professorial dissertation), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, 66 pp
    Publication Date: 2017-03-14
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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