The instrumentation and data analysis methods applied to data from the Explorer 7, TIROS 2, 3, 4, and 7, and Nimbus 2 and 3 experimental satellites are summarized. Problems encountered in analyzing these data included: determining the value of the solar constant, inaccuracies introduced by degradation of the sensors in orbit, the need to infer the total reflected and emitted radiation from filtered measurements, the development of corrections for anisotropy in order to determine the outgoing flux densities at the moment of measurement, and the development of corrections to account for diurnal variability. The corrections for long- and shortwave anisotropy and historical determinations of the solar constant and albedo are treated in detail. These early measurements indicated that the planetary albedo was lower, the emitted radiation higher, and the equator-to-pole gradient of net radiation greater than previously supposed.
NASA. Langley Research Center Earth Radiation Science Seminars; p 1-28