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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The planet in the system HD209458 is the first one for which repeated transits across the stellar disk have been observed. Together with radial velocity measurements, this has led to a determination of the planet's radius and mass, confirming it to be a gas giant. But despite numerous ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Since H3+ was first spectroscopically detected on Jupiter, there has been considerable interest in using this simple molecular ion to probe conditions existing in the planet's auroral regions. Here we present a series of images of Jupiter recorded at wavelengths sensitive to emission by H3+, which reveal the spatial distribution of excited H3+ molecular ions in the jovian ionosphere, as seen from Earth. We believe that they provide high-spatial-resolution images of polar aurorae on Jupiter. They suggest that the intensity of the auroral emission can vary on a timescale of an hour, a shorter period than had previously been noted. We also find that the spatial distribution of H3+ emissions correlates only partially with the loci of auroral activity inferred from ultraviolet and longer-wavelength infrared observations. The H3+ emission may therefore be controlled by auroral processes that are different from those responsible for the ultraviolet and infrared emissions.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); Volume 353; 539-42
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Short exposure Planetary Camera images of T Tauri have been obtained using broadband filters spanning the wavelength range 0.55-0.80 mu. The optically visible star lies very close to an arc of reflection nebulosity.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Astrophysical Journal
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: This oral report describes the first images of Saturn's far- ultraviolet polar aurora taken with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in October 1994. The images revealed auroral emissions from atomic and molecular hydrogen in both the north and south circumpolar region. Details of this observational data are given and interpreted.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: HL Tauri is considered a prototype solar-mass T Tauri star. Planetary camera images of HL Tauri have been obtained through V, R, and I band filters using the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 aboard the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope. These images show that HL Tauri is entirely reflection nebulosity at optical wavelengths, with no optical star visible to a limiting magnitude of V=25.5.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: Astrophysical Journal
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The results of long-term monitoring of the Jovian Lyman-alpha brightness with the IUE are presented. The measurements span the current solar cycle from maximum in late 1979 to the present period of minimum solar activity. The long-term variation seen in the brightness during the declining phase of the cycle matches the decrease in the solar Lyman-alpha flux during this period and is significantly smaller than the variability implied by Pioneer 10 for the first half of the cycle. The hydrogen bulge, a region of enhanced and variable Lyman-alpha emission located near magnetic longitude 100 deg, has been a persistent feature of the Jovian upper atmosphere throughout the eight-year period of the observations, and the average bulge intensity has also followed the solar cycle decrease in Lyman-alpha. Implications for the Jovian upper atmosphere and the electroglow phenomenon on Jupiter during the observational period are discussed.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 29-34
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: IUE spectra have shown several O I and S I emissions near Io. The optical thickness of the S I 1814 A multiplet indicates that the S column density is greater than about 2 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm. The presence of an S I 1479 A feature suggests that electron collisions with SO2 could be a major source of the emissions. It is likely that particle excitation in the denser collision-dominated part of the atmosphere is also responsible for a substantial part of the observed emissions.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 319; L33-L38
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The detection of H3(+) in Uranus is reported. Using the CGS4 spectrometer on the UKIRT telescope, we clearly detected 11 emission features of the H3(+) fundamental vibration-rotation band between 3.89 and 4.09 microns. These features are composed primarily of lines from the Q-branch; the strongest of them is the Q(3) blend at 3.985 microns. Analysis of these features indicates a rotational temperature of 740 +/- 25 K, an ortho-H3(+) fraction of 0.51 +/- 0.03, and a disk-averaged H3(+) column abundance of 6.5 x 10 exp 10 (+/- 10 percent) molecules/sq cm. Comparison is made with Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. A detection of the H2 1-0 S(1) line in Uranus and an upper limit to H3(+) emission from Neptune also are reported. The rate of energy deposition into Uranus appears to be significantly higher than the rate reported during the Voyager 2 flyby in January of 1986.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 405; 2; p. 761-766.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: Observations of the trailing hemisphere of Io made with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in March 1992 have resulted in the first detection of atmospheric SO2 absorption bands in the ultraviolet. These observations represent only the third positive means of detection of what is widely believed to be Io's primary atmospheric constituent. Below approximately 2130 A the geometric albedo of the satellite is dominated by SO2 gas absorption band signatures, which have been analyzed using models that include the effects of optical thickness, temperature, and spatial distribution. The disk-intergrated HST data cannot resolve the spatial distribution, but it is possible to define basic properties and set constraints on the atmosphere at the time of the observations. Hemispheric atmospheres with average column density N = 6 - 10 x 10(exp 15)/sq sm and T(gas) = 110 - 500 K fit the data, with preference for temperatures of approximately 200 - 250 K. Better fits are found as the atmosphere is spatially confined, with a limit of approximately 8% hemispheric areal coverage and N approximately equal to 3 x 10(exp 17)/sq cm with colder 110 - 250 K temepratures. A dense (N greater than or equal to 10(exp 16)/sq cm), localized component of SO2 gas, such as that possibly associated with active volcanoes, can generate the observed spectral constrast only when the atmosphere is cold (110 K) and an extended component such as Pele is included. The combination of a dense, localized atmosphere with a tenuous component (N less than 10(exp 16)/sq cm, either patchy or extended) also fits the data. In all cases the best fit models imply a disk-averaged column density larger than exospheric but approximately 10 - 30 times less than the previous upper limit from near-UV observations.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 111; 1; p. 2-17
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: IUE spectra of Jupiter are examined in light of recent models put forward to explain the anomalously bright ultraviolet emissions seen from the upper atmospheres of the outer planets. Chi-squared fits of the IUE spectra with model spectra produced by two proposed excitation mechanisms, electron impact and fluorescence of solar radiation, result in consistently higher chi-squared values for the solar fluorescence model. No conclusive evidence is found in the IUE data for the dominance of solar fluorescence over electron excitation in producing the Jovian dayglow emission.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 16; 583-586
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