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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method used to generate thermal sparks for experimental purposes and methods by which parameters of the sparks, such as speed, size, and temperature, were measured are described. Values are given of the range of such parameters within these spark showers. Titanium sparks were used almost exclusively, since it is particles of this metal which are found to be ejected during simulation tests to carbon fiber composite (CFC) joints. Tests were then carried out in which titanium sparks and spark showers were injected into JP4/(AVTAG F40) mixtures with air. Single large sparks and dense showers of small sparks were found to be capable of causing ignition. Tests were then repeated using ethylene/air mixtures, which were found to be more easily ignited by thermal sparks than the JP4/ air mixtures.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Kennedy Space Center, The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, Volume 2; 10 p
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Hydrogen-oxygen solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cells and SPE electrolyzers (products of Hamilton Standard) both use a Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) as the sole electrolyte. These solid electrolyte devices have been under continuous development for over 30 years. This experience has resulted in a demonstrated ten-year SPE cell life capability under load conditions. Ultimate life of PEM fuel cells and electrolyzers is primarily related to the chemical stability of the membrane. For perfluorocarbon proton exchange membranes an accurate measure of the membrane stability is the fluoride loss rate. Millions of cell hours have contributed to establishing a relationship between fluoride loss rates and average expected ultimate cell life. This relationship is shown. Several features have been introduced into SPE fuel cells and SPE electrolyzers such that applications requiring greater than or equal to 100,000 hours of life can be considered. Equally important as the ultimate life is the voltage stability of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells and electrolyzers. Here again the features of SPE fuel cells and SPE electrolyzers have shown a cell voltage stability in the order of 1 microvolt per hour. That level of stability has been demonstrated for tens of thousands of hours in SPE fuel cells at up to 500 amps per square foot (ASF) current density.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: Space Electrochemical Research and Technology (SERT), 1989; p 127-136
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Hydrogen-oxygen SPE fuel cells and SPE electrolyzers (products of Hamilton Standard) both use a Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) as the sole electrolyte. The SPE cells have demonstrated a ten year life capability under load conditions. Ultimate life of PEM fuel cells and electrolyzers is primarily related to the chemical stability of the membrane. For perfluorocarbon proton-exchange membranes an accurate measure of the membrane stability is the fluoride loss rate. Millions of cell hours have contributed to establishing a relationship between fluroride loss rates and average expected ultimate cell life. Several features were introduced into SPE fuel cells and SPE electrolyzers such that applications requiring greater than or equal to 100,000 hours of life can be considered. Equally important as the ultimate life is the voltage stability of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells and electrolyzers. Here again the features of SPE fuel cells and SPE electrolyzers have shown a cell voltage stability in the order of 1 microvolt per hour. That level of stability were demonstrated for tens of thousands of hours in SPE fuel cells at up to 500 amps per square foot (ASF) current density. The SPE electrolyzers have demonstrated the same at 1000 ASF. Many future extraterrestrial applications for fuel cells require that they be self recharged. To translate the proven SPE cell life and stability into a highly reliable extraterrestrial electrical energy storage system, a simplification of supporting equipment is required. Static phase separation, static fluid transport and static thermal control will be most useful in producting required system reliability. Although some 200,000 SPE fuel cell hours were recorded in earth orbit with static fluid phase separation, no SPE electrolyzer has, as yet, operated in space.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: Space Electrochemical Research and Technology Conference: Abstracts; p 19-20
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Polar Orbiting Geophysical Satellite (POGS) was launched in 1990 to measure the geomagnetic field. POGS data from selected magnetically quiet days was chosen, quality checked and deleted where thought to be erroneous. A time and position correction was applied. The resulting data was fit to a degree 13 spherical harmonic model. Evaluation of the quality of the data indicates that it is sufficient for definition of the low degree (approximately less than 8) portion of the geomagnetic field. Further correction of the data time and position may improve this quality.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: AD-A246786 , REPT-92E00297 , NAS 1.15:104551 , NASA-TM-104551
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two suites of geomagnetic field models were generated at the request of Los Alamos National Lab. concerning Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) research. The first is a progression of five models incorporating MAGSAT data and data from a sequence of batches as a priori information. The batch sequence is: post 1979.5 observatory data, post 1980 land survey and selected aeromagnetic and marine survey data, a special White Sands (NM) area survey by Project Magnet with some additional post 1980 marine survey data, and finally DE-2 satellite data. These models are of 13th deg and order in their main field terms, and deg and order 10 in their first derivative temporal terms. The second suite consists of four models based solely upon post 1983.5 observatory and survey data. They are of deg and order 10 in main field and 8 in a first deg Taylor series. A comprehensive error analysis was applied to both series, which accounted for error sources such as the truncated core and crustal fields, and the neglected Sq and low deg crustal fields. Comparison of the power spectrum of the MGST (10/81) model with those of this series show good agreement.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:104541 , NASA-TM-104541 , REPT-91E01682
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The data sets used in geomagnetic field modeling at GSFC are described. Data are measured and obtained from a variety of information and sources. For clarity, data sets from different sources are categorized and processed separately. The data base is composed of magnetic observatory data, surface data, high quality aeromagnetic, high quality total intensity marine data, satellite data, and repeat data. These individual data categories are described in detail in a series of notebooks in the Geodynamics Branch, GSFC. This catalog reviews the original data sets, the processing history, and the final data sets available for each individual category of the data base and is to be used as a reference manual for the notebooks. Each data type used in geomagnetic field modeling has varying levels of complexity requiring specialized processing routines for satellite and observatory data and two general routines for processing aeromagnetic, marine, land survey, and repeat data.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:104542 , REPT-91E01726 , NASA-TM-104542
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  • 7
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Applications of remote sensing in the areas of crop identification, range management, forest management and soil mapping are summarized.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center NASA Earth Resources Surv. Symp., Vol. 3; p 1-3
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-09-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2005-11-30
    Description: The Apollo 15 manned lunar-landing mission is discussed. As compared with previous Apollo manned lunar-landing missions, the mission 15 is characterized by increased hardware capability, a larger scientific payload, and a battery-powered lunar roving vehicle (Rover). Benefits resulting from these additions to Apollo 15 were a mission duration of 12-1/3 days, a lunar stay time of nearly 67 hr, a lunar-surface traverse distance of 27.9 km traveled at an average speed of 9.6 km/hr, and a scientific instrument module (SIM) containing equipment for orbital experiments and photographic tasks not performed on previous missions. The primary scientific objectives of the mission were to perform selenological inspection, survey, and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region; to emplace and activate surface experiments; and to conduct inflight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: Apollo 15 Prelim. Sci. Rept. te; 11 p
    Format: text
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2005-11-30
    Description: The Apollo 16 flight is described. The objectives, lunar surface activites, lunar orbital experiments, service module orbital photographic tasks, and command module photographic tasks are discussed.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: Apollo 16 Prelim. Sci. Rept. te]; 10 p
    Format: text
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