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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-04-11
    Description: The domain of the surface ocean and lower atmosphere is a complex, highly dynamic component of the Earth system. Better understanding of the physics and biogeochemistry of the air–sea interface and the processes that control the exchange of mass and energy across that boundary define the scope of the Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) project. The scientific questions driving SOLAS research, as laid out in the SOLAS Science Plan and Implementation Strategy for the period 2004–2014, are highly challenging, inherently multidisciplinary and broad. During that decade, SOLAS has significantly advanced our knowledge. Discoveries related to the physics of exchange, global trace gas budgets and atmospheric chemistry, the CLAW hypothesis (named after its authors, Charlson, Lovelock, Andreae and Warren), and the influence of nutrients and ocean productivity on important biogeochemical cycles, have substantially changed our views of how the Earth system works and revealed knowledge gaps in our understanding. As such SOLAS has been instrumental in contributing to the International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme (IGBP) mission of identification and assessment of risks posed to society and ecosystems by major changes in the Earth’s biological, chemical and physical cycles and processes during the Anthropocene epoch. SOLAS is a bottom-up organization, whose scientific priorities evolve in response to scientific developments and community needs, which has led to the launch of a new 10-year phase. SOLAS (2015–2025) will focus on five core science themes that will provide a scientific basis for understanding and projecting future environmental change and for developing tools to inform societal decision-making.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The impact of anthropogenic ocean acidification (OA) on marine ecosystems is a vital concern facing marine scientists and managers of ocean resources. Euthecosomatous pteropods (holoplanktonic gastropods) represent an excellent sentinel for indicating exposure to anthropogenic OA because of the sensitivity of their aragonite shells to the OA conditions less favorable for calcification. However, an integration of observations, experiments and modelling efforts is needed to make accurate predictions of how these organisms will respond to future changes to their environment. Our understanding of the underlying organismal biology and life history is far from complete and must be improved if we are to comprehend fully the responses of these organisms to the multitude of stressors in their environment beyond OA. This review considers the present state of research and understanding of euthecosomatous pteropod biology and ecology of these organisms and considers promising new laboratory methods, advances in instrumentation (such as molecular, trace elements, stable isotopes, palaeobiology alongside autonomous sampling platforms, CT scanning and high-quality video recording) and novel field-based approaches (i.e. studies of upwelling and CO2 vent regions) that may allow us to improve our predictive capacity of their vulnerability and/or resilience. In addition to playing a critical ecological and biogeochemical role, pteropods can offer a significant value as an early-indicator of anthropogenic OA. This role as a sentinel species should be developed further to consolidate their potential use within marine environmental management policy making.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-05-24
    Description: Autonomous underwater gliders offer the capability of measuring oceanic parameters continuously at high resolution in both vertical and horizontal planes, with timescales that can extend to many months. An experimental ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor measuring pH on the total scale was attached to a glider during the REP14-MED experiment in June 2014 in the Sardinian Sea in the northwestern Mediterranean. During the deployment, pH was sampled at depths of up to 1000m along an 80km transect over a period of 12 days. Water samples were collected from a nearby ship and analysed for dissolved inorganic carbon concentration and total alkalinity to derive the pH for validating the ISFET sensor measurements. The vertical resolution of the pH sensor was good (1 to 2m), but stability was poor and the sensor drifted in a non-monotonous fashion. In order to remove the sensor drift, a depth-constant time-varying offset was applied throughout the water column for each dive, reducing the spread of the data by approximately two-thirds. Furthermore, the ISFET sensor required temperature- and pressure-based corrections, which were achieved using linear regression. Correcting for this decreased the apparent sensor pH variability by a further 13 to 31%. Sunlight caused an apparent sensor pH decrease of up to 0.1 in surface waters around local noon, highlighting the importance of shielding the sensor from light in future deployments. The corrected pH from the ISFET sensor is presented along with potential temperature, salinity, potential density anomalies (σθ), and dissolved oxygen concentrations (c(O2)) measured by the glider, providing insights into the physical and biogeochemical variability in the Sardinian Sea. The pH maxima were identified close to the depth of the summer chlorophyll maximum, where high c(O2) values were also found. Longitudinal pH variations at depth (σθ 〉 28. 8kgm−3) highlighted the variability of water masses in the Sardinian Sea. Higher pH was observed where salinity was  〉 38. 65, and lower pH was found where salinity ranged between 38.3 and 38.65. The higher pH was associated with saltier Levantine Intermediate Water, and it is possible that the lower pH was related to the remineralisation of organic matter. Furthermore, shoaling isopycnals closer to shore coinciding with low pH and c(O2), high salinity, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and chlorophyll fluorescence waters may be indicative of upwelling.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0792
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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