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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: From the sensitivity studies performed with the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system, it was revealed that the forecast errors in the tropics affect the ability to forecast midlatitude weather in some cases. Apparently, the forecast errors occurring in the tropics can propagate to midlatitudes. Therefore, the systematic error analysis of the GLA forecast system becomes a necessary step in improving the model's forecast performance. The major effort of this study is to examine the possible impact of the hydrological-cycle forecast error on dynamical fields in the GLA forecast system.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-101194 , NAS 1.15:101194
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Collocation statistics obtained by comparing VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) temperature soundings with those from nearby rawinsondes indicate good agreement. However, the VAS soundings exhibited a substantial cold bias in the middle and upper troposphere. The error makes promising the use of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) to obtain an independent estimate of tropopause pressure for use in the retrieval program. Good agreement is found between TOMS data and tropopause pressure. A quantitative assessment for the correlation of tropopause pressure, obtained from TOMS by regression and from rawinsondes over Europe, is reported.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Scientific and Operational Requirements for TOMS Data; p 40-45
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The blocking phenomena, in particular winter blocking, are stuided using energetic diagnostics. Sequences of blockings during the FGGE winter and summer in observed and simulated circulations, and energy transformations associated with blockings are examined. It is observed that the simulation of the Northern Hemisphere circulation correlates better with the observed circulation during summer than during winter. It is noted that the observed winter blockings are maintained by the supply of kinetic energy to the ultralong waves from the shorter cyclone scales through nonlinear wave-wave interaction; in the simulated winter blocking, the energy converted at the cyclone scale cascades down to the shorter wave range; and the summer blockings are supported by the baroclinic conversion of long waves in both the observed and simulated circulations.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The formation of major Northern Hemisphere blockings during January 1979 is studied in numerical simulations of the global atmosphere with a sea surface temperature (SST) field updated with observations during the model integration. Both the standard 4 x 5 degrees latitude-longitude and high-resolution 2 x 2.5 degrees versions of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres general circulation models (GCMs) are employed. The SST field is provided by a blend analysis of in situ and satellite-retrieved data. The simulations by the high-resolution GCM with a realistic SST field of the ocean surface are shown to be capable of producing two successive realistic major blockings in the Pacific and Atlantic through a one-month period. The skill in predicting the blocking formation as obtained in the simulations is due to improved skill in forecasting of ultralog waves. Although the results are encouraging, only one initial state is involved in this series of simulations; therefore, the results should not be generalized yet at this stage of investigation.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Royal Meteorological Society, Quarterly Journal (ISSN 0035-9009); 116; 1053-107
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The deployment of a space-based Doppler lidar would provide information that is fundamental to advancing the understanding and prediction of weather and climate. This paper reviews the concepts of wind measurement by Doppler lidar, highlights the results of some observing system simulation experiments with lidar winds, and discusses the important advances in earth system science anticipated with lidar winds. Observing system simulation experiments, conducted using two different general circulation models, have shown (1) that there is a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy over the Southern Hemisphere and tropical oceans resulting from the assimilation of simulated satellite wind data, and (2) that wind data are significantly more effective than temperature or moisture data in controlling analysis error. Because accurate wind observations are currently almost entirely unavailable for the vast majority of tropical cyclones worldwide, lidar winds have the potential to substan- tially improve tropical cyclone forecasts. Similarly, to improve water vapor flux divergence calculations, a direct measure of the ageostrophic wind is needed since the present level of uncer- tainty cannot be reduced with better temperature and moisture soundings alone.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: American Meteorological Society, Bulletin (ISSN 0003-0007); 76; 6; p. 869-888
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A stratospheric assimilation system has been developed, which generates wind data that is consistent with the geopotential height (and temperature) field and the primitive equations in the general circulation model. This paper reports the first known calculations to use data from an assimilation to calculate constituent transport in the stratosphere. Nitric acid (NHO3) during the Limb IR Monitor of the Stratosphere (Gille et al., 1984) period is studied. The high-latitude time variance of the HNO3 is accurately captured. These studies suggest that data from an assimilation process offers tremendous potential for studying stratospheric dynamics, constituent transport, and chemistry.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 46; 687-701
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Global diabatic heating is estimated using fields of directly computed heating components, in particular those due to shortwave radiation, longwave radiation, sensible heating, and latent heating produced every 6 hours. The role of average fields of diabatic heating in the generation of available potential energy is examined. It is observed that latent heating is most significant in generating available potential energy.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A three-dimensional (3D), multivariate, statistical objective analysis scheme (referred to as optimum interpolation or OI) has been developed for use in numerical weather prediction studies with the FGGE data. Some novel aspects of the present scheme include: (1) a multivariate surface analysis over the oceans, which employs an Ekman balance instead of the usual geostrophic relationship, to model the pressure-wind error cross correlations, and (2) the capability to use an error correlation function which is geographically dependent. A series of 4-day data assimilation experiments are conducted to examine the importance of some of the key features of the OI in terms of their effects on forecast skill, as well as to compare the forecast skill using the OI with that utilizing a successive correction method (SCM) of analysis developed earlier. For the three cases examined, the forecast skill is found to be rather insensitive to varying the error correlation function geographically. However, significant differences are noted between forecasts from a two-dimensional (2D) version of the OI and those from the 3D OI, with the 3D OI forecasts exhibiting better forecast skill. The 3D OI forecasts are also more accurate than those from the SCM initial conditions. The 3D OI with the multivariate oceanic surface analysis was found to produce forecasts which were slightly more accurate, on the average, than a univariate version.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Monthly Weather Review (ISSN 0027-0644); 115; 272-296
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-09-25
    Description: Knowledge of the global wind field is widely recognized as fundamental to advancing our understanding and prediction of the total Earth system. Yet, because wind profiles are primarily measured by land-based rawinsondes, the oceanic areas (covering three quarters of the Earth's surface) and many regions of the less developed southern hemisphere land areas are poorly observed. The gap between our requirements for wind data and their availability continues to widen. For example, as faster computers become available to model the atmosphere with ever increasing resolution and sophistication, our ability to model the atmosphere will be hampered by a lack of data, particularly wind profiles. In order to address this important deficiency in wind observations, NASA plans to construct the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) instrument, with deployment tentatively scheduled between 2002 and 2005 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. Addressed here is the importance of wind measurements for advancing our understanding and prediction of the total Earth System. The current characteristics of the LAWS instrument under study are also summarized.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center, Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Part 1; p 251-255
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The spectral energetics of the Northern Hemisphere circulation during blocking episodes of the FGGE year is investigated with gridded analyses of observational data and parallel simulation experiments. The purpose of this study is to describe the energetics distinctions of the observed and simulated blockings in the context of the general circulation and to assess the capability of the model to simulate blockings. In the observed circulation a pronounced winter blocking is developed and maintained by the nonlinear wave-wave interaction L(1) from the kinetic energy source for n = 3-10, where L(n) is the transfer of eddy kinetic energy from all other wavenumbers to wavenumber n. In the case of the double blocking in the winter, both L(1) and L(2) support the blocking. The kinetic energy source of n = 10 for upscale input at n = 1 and 2 is supported by the baroclinic conversion at n = 3-10. The simulated winter circulation shows strong baroclinic conversion at all wavenumbers, including ultralong waves. However, the simulation fails to produce pronounced blocking for the absence of L(1), and the converted energy cascades down to shorter waves. The wave-mean transfer of kinetic energy from the large-scale disturbances to the zonal mean component further prevents the accumulation of the kinetic energy at the ultralong waves. In contrast to the winter situation, the summer blocking seems to be directly supported by both L(4) and baroclinic conversion at other planetary-scale waves. Consequently, the summer circulation is better simulated than the winter circulation.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 43; 2792-281
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