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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-164-78
    In: The Geology of the South Shetland Islands
    Description / Table of Contents: The renewed volcanic activity at Deception Island appears to be closely associated with the caldera ring fault. In 1967, a submarine eruption created a new island in Telefon Bay and there was a simultaeous eruption at the land centre, 2 km. to the east. In 1969, a 5 km. fissure opened up in the glacier on the western face of Mount Pond. There were numerous vents but the most damaging aspect of the eruption was the liberation of a large volume of glacial melt water. In the 1970 eruption a series of craters built a new ship of land across Telefon Bay, partley destroying the 1967 island. The new ejecta are remarkably variable in composition. They tend to become more basic further away from the site of the 1967 island. At any particular locality later products tend to be slightly more basic than earlier ones. The distinctive Na-rich, K-poor characteristic apparently persists right through the history of Deception Island. Two basalt types are recognized, one rich in alumina and the other rich in iron. However, the high Na : K ratio is especially accentuated in the more differentiated post-caldera rocks, to which the recent eruptives belong. The Deception Island suite differs in several essential aspects from the typical calc-alkali series. These differences may be explained by persistenf loss of volatiles inhibiting the formation of amphibole.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 81, VIII S. : Ill., Kt.
    Series Statement: 78
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Call number: ZSP-164-91
    In: The South Sandwich Islands
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 76, [23] S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt
    ISBN: 0856650463
    Series Statement: 91
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Easter Island has developed around three volcanoes—Poike, an older (3 m.y.) strato-volcano, Rano Kau, a caldera, and the fissure complex of Terevaka and its associated cones. The lavas show a wide compositional spread from tholeiites and olivine tholeiites to hawaiites, mugearites, benmoreites, trachytes and rhyolites (comendites). Hawaiite is by far the most abundant rock type and trachytes and rhyolites are relatively rare. Intermediate and acid rocks are concentrated in the southwestern part of the island on or around Rano Kau. The basaltic rocks, which are plagioclase-phyric or aphyric, are transitional hypersthenenormative types characterized by high contents of Fe, Ti and Zr but low K and Mg. The Poike basalts are marginally lower in Zr, Nb, Y and Zn compared with those of the younger volcanoes, but the trachytes from this centre show anomalously high concentrations of Rb, Zr and Nb. The island's youngest flow, the Roiho basalt, is an olivine tholeiite with distinctly more alkaline affinities: it is olivine-microphyric with relatively high contents of Mg, Ni and K.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Key wordsLesser Antilles ; St Kitts ; Mt Liamuiga ; radiocarbon dating ; charcoal contamination ; stratigraphy ; pyroclastic deposits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Heavy rainfall and dense vegetation on tropical volcanoes produce abundant carbonized wood in pyroclastic deposits, in addition to easy contamination of this wood by root systems and soluble humic material. Because the physical nature of the charcoal varies, some samples are more prone to contamination. Two independent studies of the same volcano, Mt Liamuiga on St Kitts in the Lesser Antilles, sometimes using samples from the same carbonized tree, yielded a systematic difference in radiocarbon ages. An exchange of samples and a re-investigation of three physically distinct types of charcoal yielded the following results. Rare, hard, dense charcoal, lacking contamination, which had yielded a spurious age of 2860 years bp, was redated at 1845±58 years bp. Common soft, friable charcoal with good cellular structure proved to be susceptible to contamination. A field decontamination technique utilized by one group seems significant as it yields older ages than when only routine laboratory pre-treatment was used, indicating that the latter technique only partly removes the dried and hard residue produced by the decomposition of modern plant rootlets. A previous date of 24 870 years bp obtained from powdery charcoal in a horizon beneath the Mansion 'Series' contradicted ages older than 41 000 years bp from common friable charcoal in the lower Mansion 'Series'. The soft powdery charcoal was re-investigated using a sample collected a few centimeters from the original, although field decontamination of this sample was not possible, more extensive laboratory treatment yielded an age of ca. 43 000 years bp, again proving that routine laboratory pre-treatments are inadequate. A revised geochronology for the Mansion 'Series' is described and a cautionary discussion is presented for the benefit of investigators using radiocarbon ages to date volcanic deposits.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Lesser Antilles ; St Kitts ; Mt Liamuiga radiocarbon dating ; charcoal contamination stratigraphy ; pyroclastic deposits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Heavy rainfall and dense vegetation on tropical volcanoes produce abundant carbonized wood in pyroclastic deposits, in addition to easy contamination of this wood by root systems and soluble humic material. Because the physical nature of the charcoal varies, some samples are more prone to contamination. Two independent studies of the same volcano, Mt Liamuiga on St Kitts in the Lesser Antilles, sometimes using samples from the same carbonized tree, yielded a systematic difference in radiocarbon ages. An exchange of samples and a re-investigation of three physically distinct types of charcoal yielded the following results. Rare, hard, dense charcoal, lacking contamination, which had yielded a spurious age of 2860 years bp, was redated at 1845±58 years bp. Common soft, friable charcoal with good cellular structure proved to be susceptible to contamination. A field decontamination technique utilized by one group seems significant as it yields older ages than when only routine laboratory pre-treatment was used, indicating that the latter technique only partly removes the dried and hard residue produced by the decomposition of modern plant rootlets. A previous date of 24870 years bp obtained from powdery charcoal in a horizon beneath the Mansion ‘Series’ contradicted ages older than 41000 years bp from common friable charcoal in the lower Mansion ‘Series’. The soft powdery charcoal was re-investigated using a sample collected a few centimeters from the original, although field decontamination of this sample was not possible, more extensive laboratory treatment yielded an age of ca. 43000 years bp, again proving that routine laboratory pretreatments are inadequate. A revised geochronology for the Mansion ‘Series’ is described and a cautionary discussion is presented for the benefit of investigators using radiocarbon ages to date volcanic deposits.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 204 (1964), S. 722-724 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A SCENSION ISLAND (lat. 7 57' S., long. 14 22' W.) is situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and rises from the crest of the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. The island is roughly triangular in outline and some 36 square miles in area. High temperatures, low rainfall and persistent trade winds characterize the ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 203 (1964), S. 1055-1056 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THE Norwegian island of Bouvetoya (54 26? S., 3 24? E.) is the southernmost of the volcanic islands rising from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. About 9-5 km from east to west and 7 km from north to south, it reaches a height of 935 m above sea-level. The gently domed upper part of the island ends abruptly ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 224 (1969), S. 553-560 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Eruptions, apparently associated with the caldera fault zone, have created a new island and a new 5 km fissure. Several explosive vents along the fissure caused a rift in the overlying glacier releasing a flood of water carrying ice ...
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1980-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0258-8900
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0819
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1980-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0258-8900
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0819
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
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