PIK N 076-11-0312
Description / Table of Contents:
Contents: 1. Introduction ; PART I: AMMONIA CRITICAL THRESHOLDS ; 2. Reassessment of critical levels for atmospheric ammonia ; 3. Potential for the further development and application of critical levels to assess the environmental impacts of ammonia. ; 4. Long-term cumulative exposure exacerbates the effects of atmospheric ammonia on an ombrotrophic bog: Implications for Critical Levels. ; 5. The application of transects to assess the effects of ammonia on woodland groundflora. ; 6. Estimation of the ammonia critical level for epiphytic lichens based on observations at farm, landscape and national scales. ; 7. Mapping ammonia emissions and concentrations for Switzerland - effects on lichen vegetation. ; 8. Over which averaging period is the ammonia critical level most precautionary? ; 9. Machrolichens on twigs and trunks as indicators of ammonia concentrations across the UK - a practical method. ; 10. Assessment of critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for lichen diversity in cork-oak woodland, Portugal. ; PART II: TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA ; 11. Linking ammonia emission trends to measured concentrations and deposition of reduced nitrogen at different scales. ; 12. Long-term record (1981-2005) of ammonia and ammonium concentrations at K-puszta Hungary and the effect of SO2 emission change on measured and modelled concentrations. ; 13. Assessment of NH3 and NH4+ trends and relationship to critical levels in the UK National Ammonia Monitoring Network (NAMN). ; 14. Review of published studies estimating the abatement efficacy of reduced-emission slurry spreading techniques. ; PART III: ANALYSIS OF AMMONIA HOTSPOTS ; 15. Ammonia deposition near hot spots: processes, models and monitoring methods. ; 16. Standardised grasses as biomonitors of ammonia pollution around agricultural point sources. ; 17. Soluble ammonium in plants as a bioindicator for atmospheric nitrogen deposition: refinement and testing of a practical method. ; 18. Spatial planning as a complementary tool to abate the effects of atmospheric NH# deposition at the landscape scale. ; PART IV: REGIONAL MODELLING OF ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA ; 19. Modelling of the atmospheric transport and deposition of ammonia at a national and regional scale. ; 20. Application of a Lagrangian model FRAME to estimate reduced nitrogen deposition and ammonia concentrations in Poland. ; 21. Application of the EMEP Unified Model to the UK with a horizontal resolution of 5 x 5 km2. ; PART V: CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK ; 22. Critical Levels for NH3. ; 23. Detecting change in atmospheric ammonia following emission changes. ; 24. Assessment methods for ammonia hot-spots. ; 25. Modelling the national and regional transport and deposition of ammonia. 26. Reliability of ammonia emission estimates and abatement efficiencies. ; 27. Ammonia policy context and future challenges. ; 28. Synthesis and summary for policy makers.
Type of Medium:
Monograph available for loan
XXIII, 464 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.