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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: Photosynthetic production of organic matter by microscopic oceanic phytoplankton fuels ocean ecosystems and contributes roughly half of the Earth's net primary production. For 13 years, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission provided the first consistent, synoptic observations of global ocean ecosystems. Changes in the surface chlorophyll concentration, the primary biological property retrieved from SeaWiFS, have traditionally been used as a metric for phytoplankton abundance and its distribution largely reflects patterns in vertical nutrient transport. On regional to global scales, chlorophyll concentrations covary with sea surface temperature (SST) because SST changes reflect light and nutrient conditions. However, the oceanmay be too complex to be well characterized using a single index such as the chlorophyll concentration. A semi-analytical bio-optical algorithm is used to help interpret regional to global SeaWiFS chlorophyll observations from using three independent, well-validated ocean color data products; the chlorophyll a concentration, absorption by CDM and particulate backscattering. First, we show that observed long-term, global-scale trends in standard chlorophyll retrievals are likely compromised by coincident changes in CDM. Second, we partition the chlorophyll signal into a component due to phytoplankton biomass changes and a component caused by physiological adjustments in intracellular chlorophyll concentrations to changes in mixed layer light levels. We show that biomass changes dominate chlorophyll signals for the high latitude seas and where persistent vertical upwelling is known to occur, while physiological processes dominate chlorophyll variability over much of the tropical and subtropical oceans. The SeaWiFS data set demonstrates complexity in the interpretation of changes in regional to global phytoplankton distributions and illustrates limitations for the assessment of phytoplankton dynamics using chlorophyll retrievals alone.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN8941 , Remote Sensing of Environment; 135; 77-91
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Satellite ocean color missions require an abundance of high-quality in situ measurements for bio-optical and atmospheric algorithm development and post-launch product validation and sensor calibration. To facilitate the assembly of a global data set, the NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view (SeaWiFS) Project developed the Seafaring Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), a local repository for in situ data regularly used in their scientific analyses. The system has since been expanded to contain data sets collected by the NASA Sensor Intercalibration and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project, as part of NASA Research Announcements NRA-96-MTPE-04 and NRA-99-OES-99. SeaBASS is a well moderated and documented hive for bio-optical data with a simple, secure mechanism for locating and extracting data based on user inputs. Its holdings are available to the general public with the exception of the most recently collected data sets. Extensive quality assurance protocols, comprehensive data and system documentation, and the continuation of an archive and relational database management system (RDBMS) suitable for bio-optical data all contribute to the continued success of SeaBASS. This document provides an overview of the current operational SeaBASS system.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-2002-211617 , NAS 1.15:211617 , Rept-2002-03543-0
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: In clear shallow waters, light that is transmitted downward through the water column can reflect off the sea floor and thereby influence the water-leaving radiance signal. This effect can confound contemporary ocean color algorithms designed for deep waters where the seafloor has little or no effect on the water-leaving radiance. Thus, inappropriate use of deep water ocean color algorithms in optically shallow regions can lead to inaccurate retrievals of inherent optical properties (IOPs) and therefore have a detrimental impact on IOP-based estimates of marine parameters, including chlorophyll-a and the diffuse attenuation coefficient. In order to improve IOP retrievals in optically shallow regions, a semi-analytical inversion algorithm, the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM), has been developed. Unlike established ocean color algorithms, SWIM considers both the water column depth and the benthic albedo. A radiative transfer study was conducted that demonstrated how SWIM and two contemporary ocean color algorithms, the Generalized Inherent Optical Properties algorithm (GIOP) and Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA), performed in optically deep and shallow scenarios. The results showed that SWIM performed well, whilst both GIOP and QAA showed distinct positive bias in IOP retrievals in optically shallow waters. The SWIM algorithm was also applied to a test region: the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using a single test scene and time series data collected by NASA's MODIS-Aqua sensor (2002-2013), a comparison of IOPs retrieved by SWIM, GIOP and QAA was conducted.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN18960 , Ocean Optics Conference; Oct 26, 2014 - Oct 31, 2014; Portland, ME; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The NASA VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) has the task of evaluating Suomi NPP VIIRS ocean color data for the continuity of the NASA ocean color climate data records. The generation of science quality ocean color data products requires an instrument calibration that is stable over time. Since the VIIRS NIR Degradation Anomaly directly impacts the bands used for atmospheric correction of the ocean color data (Bands M6 and M7), the VOST has adapted the VIIRS on-orbit calibration approach to meet the ocean science requirements. The solar diffuser calibration time series and the solar diffuser stability monitor time series have been used to derive changes in the instrument response and diffuser reflectance over time for bands M1-M11.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN6422
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The effort to resolve data quality issues and improve on the initial data evaluation methodologies of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project was an extensive one. These evaluations have resulted, to date, in three major reprocessings of the entire data set where each reprocessing addressed the data quality issues that could be identified up to the time of each reprocessing. The number of chapters (21) needed to document this extensive work in the SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series requires three volumes. The chapters in Volumes 9, 10, and 11 are in a logical order sequencing through sensor calibration, atmospheric correction, masks and flags, product evaluations, and bio-optical algorithms. The first chapter of Volume 9 is an overview of the calibration and validation program, including a table of activities from the inception of the SeaWiFS Project. Chapter 2 describes the fine adjustments of sensor detector knee radiances, i.e., radiance levels where three of the four detectors in each SeaWiFS band saturate. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the analyses of the lunar and solar calibration time series, respectively, which are used to track the temporal changes in radiometric sensitivity in each band. Chapter 5 outlines the procedure used to adjust band 7 relative to band 8 to derive reasonable aerosol radiances in band 7 as compared to those in band 8 in the vicinity of Lanai, Hawaii, the vicarious calibration site. Chapter 6 presents the procedure used to estimate the vicarious calibration gain adjustment factors for bands 1-6 using the waterleaving radiances from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) offshore of Lanai. Chapter 7 provides the adjustments to the coccolithophore flag algorithm which were required for improved performance over the prelaunch version. Chapter 8 is an overview of the numerous modifications to the atmospheric correction algorithm that have been implemented. Chapter 9 describes the methodology used to remove artifacts of sun glint contamination for portions of the imagery outside the sun glint mask. Finally, Chapter 10 explains a modification to the ozone interpolation method to account for actual time differences between the SeaWiFS and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) orbits.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-2000-206892/VOL9 , NAS 1.15:206892/VOL9 , Rept-2001-00416-0/VOL9 , (ISSN 1522-8789)
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This report documents the scientific activities that took place at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy from 2-6 August 1999. The ultimate objective of the field campaign was to evaluate the capabilities of a new instrument called the SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurements (SeaPRISM). SeaPRISM is based on a CE-318 sun photometer made by CIMEL Electronique (Paris, France). The CE-318 is an automated, robotic system which measures the direct sun irradiance plus the sky radiance in the sun plane and in the almucantar plane. The data are transmitted over a satellite link, and this remote operation capability has made the device very useful for atmospheric measurements. The revision to the CE-318 that makes the instrument potentially useful for SeaWiFS calibration and validation activities is to include a capability for measuring the radiance leaving the sea surface in wavelengths suitable for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration. The initial evaluation of this new capability involved above- and in-water measurement protocols. An intercomparison of the water-leaving radiances derived from SeaPRISM and an in-water system showed the overall spectral agreement was approximately 8.6%, but the blue-green channels intercompared at the 5% level. A blue-green band ratio comparison was at the 4% level.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-2000-206892/VOL13 , NAS 1.15:206892/VOL13 , Rept-2001-00903-0 , (ISSN 1522-8789)
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A recently developed algorithm to estimate surface ocean chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl in milligrams per cubic meter), namely, the ocean color index (OCI) algorithm, has been adopted by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration to apply to all satellite ocean color sensors to produce global Chl maps. The algorithm is a hybrid between a banddifference color index algorithm for lowChl waters and the traditional bandratio algorithms (OCx) for higherChl waters. In this study, the OCI algorithm is revisited for its algorithm coefficients and for its algorithm transition between color index and OCx using a merged data set of highperformance liquid chromatography and fluorometric Chl. Results suggest that the new OCI algorithm (OCI2) leads to lower Chl estimates than the original OCI (OCI1) for Chl less than 0.05 milligrams per cubic meter, but smoother algorithm transition for Chl between 0.25 and 0.40 milligrams per cubic meter. Evaluation using in situ data suggests that similar to OCI1, OCI2 has significantly improved image quality and crosssensor consistency between SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor), MODISA (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aqua), and VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) over the OCx algorithms for oligotrophic oceans. Mean crosssensor difference in monthly Chl data products over global oligotrophic oceans reduced from approximately 10 percent for OCx to 1-2 percent for OCI2. More importantly, data statistics suggest that the current straylight masking scheme used to generate global Chl maps can be relaxed from 7 by 5 to 3 by 3 pixels without losing data quality in either Chl or spectral remote sensing reflectance (R (sub rs) by lambda (sensor wavelength), per steradian (sr (sup 1)) for not just oligotrophic oceans but also more productive waters. Such a relaxed masking scheme yields an average relative increase of 39 percent in data quantity for global oceans, thus making it possible to reduce data product uncertainties and fill data gaps.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN67550 , Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (ISSN 2169-9275) (e-ISSN 2169-9291)
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a multi-spectral radiometer hosted on the recently launched Landsat-8 satellite. OLI includes a suite of relatively narrow spectral bands at 30-meter spatial resolution in the visible to shortwave infrared that make it a potential tool for ocean color radiometry: measurement of the reflected spectral radiance upwelling from beneath the ocean surface that carries information on the biogeochemical constituents of the upper ocean euphotic zone. To evaluate the potential of OLI to measure ocean color, processing support was implemented in SeaDAS, which is an open-source software package distributed by NASA for processing, analysis, and display of ocean remote sensing measurements from a variety of satellite-based multi-spectral radiometers. Here we describe the implementation of OLI processing capabilities within SeaDAS, including support for various methods of atmospheric correction to remove the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption and retrieve the spectral remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs; sr exp 1). The quality of the retrieved Rrs imagery will be assessed, as will the derived water column constituents such as the concentration of the phytoplankton pigment chlorophyll a.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN21755 , Ocean Optics; Oct 26, 2014 - Oct 31, 2014; Portland, Maine; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the Aqua platform (MODIS-Aqua) provides a viable data stream for operational water quality monitoring of Chesapeake Bay. Marine geophysical products from MODIS-Aqua depend on the efficacy of the atmospheric correction process, which can be problematic in coastal environments. The operational atmospheric correction algorithm for MODIS-Aqua requires an assumption of negligible near-infrared water-leaving radiance, nL(sub w)(NIR). This assumption progressively degrades with increasing turbidity and, as such, methods exist to account for non-negligible nL(sub w)(NIR) within the atmospheric correction process or to use alternate radiometric bands where the assumption is satisfied, such as those positioned within shortwave infrared (SWIR) region of the spectrum. We evaluated a decade-long time-series of nL(sub w)(lambda) from MODIS-Aqua in Chesapeake Bay derived using NIR and SWIR bands for atmospheric correction. Low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for the SWIR bands of MODIS-Aqua added noise errors to the derived radiances, which produced broad, flat frequency distributions of nL(sub w)(lambda) relative to those produced using the NIR bands. The SWIR approach produced an increased number of negative nL(sub w)(lambda) and decreased sample size relative to the NIR approach. Revised vicarious calibration and regional tuning of the scheme to switch between the NIR and SWIR approaches may improve retrievals in Chesapeake Bay, however, poor SNR values for the MODIS-Aqua SWIR bands remain the primary deficiency of the SWIR-based atmospheric correction approach.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC.JA.4813.2011 , Remote Sensing of Environment; 114; 10; 2238-2247
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: This document suggests requirements for an advanced ocean radiometer, such as e.g. the ACE (Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystem) ocean radiometer. The ACE ocean biology mission objectives have been defined in the ACE Ocean Biology white paper. The general requirements presented therein were chosen as the basis for the requirements provided in this document, which have been transformed into specific, testable requirements. The overall accuracy goal for the advanced ocean radiometer is that the total radiometric uncertainties are 0.5% or smaller for all bands. Specific mission requirements of SeaWiFS, MODIS, and VIIRS were often used as a model for the requirements presented here, which are in most cases more demanding than the heritage requirements. Experience with on-orbit performance and calibration (from SeaWiFS and MODIS) and prelaunch testing (from SeaWiFS, MODIS, and VIIRS) were important considerations when formulating the requirements. This document describes requirements in terms of the science data products, with a focus on qualities that can be verified by prelaunch radiometric characterization. It is expected that a more comprehensive requirements document will be developed during mission formulation
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NASA/TM-2011-215883 , GSFC.TM.5375.2011
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