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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project is concerned with ocean color satellite sensor data intercomparison and merger for biological and interdisciplinary studies of the global oceans. Imagery from different ocean color sensors can now be processed by a single software package using the same algorithms, adjusted by different sensor spectral characteristics, and the same ancillary meteorological and environmental data. This enables cross-comparison and validation of the data derived from satellite sensors and, consequently, creates continuity in ocean color information on both the temporal and spatial scale. The next step in this process is the integration of in situ ocean and atmospheric parameters to enable cross-validation and further refinement of the ocean color methodology. The SIMBIOS Project Office accomplishments during 2000 year are summarized under satellite data processing, data product validation, SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) database, supporting services, sun photometers and calibration activities, and calibration round robins. These accomplishments are described.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: SIMBIOS Project; 8-25; NASA/TM-2001-209976
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: Photosynthetic production of organic matter by microscopic oceanic phytoplankton fuels ocean ecosystems and contributes roughly half of the Earth's net primary production. For 13 years, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission provided the first consistent, synoptic observations of global ocean ecosystems. Changes in the surface chlorophyll concentration, the primary biological property retrieved from SeaWiFS, have traditionally been used as a metric for phytoplankton abundance and its distribution largely reflects patterns in vertical nutrient transport. On regional to global scales, chlorophyll concentrations covary with sea surface temperature (SST) because SST changes reflect light and nutrient conditions. However, the oceanmay be too complex to be well characterized using a single index such as the chlorophyll concentration. A semi-analytical bio-optical algorithm is used to help interpret regional to global SeaWiFS chlorophyll observations from using three independent, well-validated ocean color data products; the chlorophyll a concentration, absorption by CDM and particulate backscattering. First, we show that observed long-term, global-scale trends in standard chlorophyll retrievals are likely compromised by coincident changes in CDM. Second, we partition the chlorophyll signal into a component due to phytoplankton biomass changes and a component caused by physiological adjustments in intracellular chlorophyll concentrations to changes in mixed layer light levels. We show that biomass changes dominate chlorophyll signals for the high latitude seas and where persistent vertical upwelling is known to occur, while physiological processes dominate chlorophyll variability over much of the tropical and subtropical oceans. The SeaWiFS data set demonstrates complexity in the interpretation of changes in regional to global phytoplankton distributions and illustrates limitations for the assessment of phytoplankton dynamics using chlorophyll retrievals alone.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN8941 , Remote Sensing of Environment; 135; 77-91
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Satellite ocean color missions require an abundance of high-quality in situ measurements for bio-optical and atmospheric algorithm development and post-launch product validation and sensor calibration. To facilitate the assembly of a global data set, the NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view (SeaWiFS) Project developed the Seafaring Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), a local repository for in situ data regularly used in their scientific analyses. The system has since been expanded to contain data sets collected by the NASA Sensor Intercalibration and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project, as part of NASA Research Announcements NRA-96-MTPE-04 and NRA-99-OES-99. SeaBASS is a well moderated and documented hive for bio-optical data with a simple, secure mechanism for locating and extracting data based on user inputs. Its holdings are available to the general public with the exception of the most recently collected data sets. Extensive quality assurance protocols, comprehensive data and system documentation, and the continuation of an archive and relational database management system (RDBMS) suitable for bio-optical data all contribute to the continued success of SeaBASS. This document provides an overview of the current operational SeaBASS system.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-2002-211617 , NAS 1.15:211617 , Rept-2002-03543-0
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: In clear shallow waters, light that is transmitted downward through the water column can reflect off the sea floor and thereby influence the water-leaving radiance signal. This effect can confound contemporary ocean color algorithms designed for deep waters where the seafloor has little or no effect on the water-leaving radiance. Thus, inappropriate use of deep water ocean color algorithms in optically shallow regions can lead to inaccurate retrievals of inherent optical properties (IOPs) and therefore have a detrimental impact on IOP-based estimates of marine parameters, including chlorophyll-a and the diffuse attenuation coefficient. In order to improve IOP retrievals in optically shallow regions, a semi-analytical inversion algorithm, the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM), has been developed. Unlike established ocean color algorithms, SWIM considers both the water column depth and the benthic albedo. A radiative transfer study was conducted that demonstrated how SWIM and two contemporary ocean color algorithms, the Generalized Inherent Optical Properties algorithm (GIOP) and Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA), performed in optically deep and shallow scenarios. The results showed that SWIM performed well, whilst both GIOP and QAA showed distinct positive bias in IOP retrievals in optically shallow waters. The SWIM algorithm was also applied to a test region: the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Using a single test scene and time series data collected by NASA's MODIS-Aqua sensor (2002-2013), a comparison of IOPs retrieved by SWIM, GIOP and QAA was conducted.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN18960 , Ocean Optics Conference; Oct 26, 2014 - Oct 31, 2014; Portland, ME; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The NASA VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) has the task of evaluating Suomi NPP VIIRS ocean color data for the continuity of the NASA ocean color climate data records. The generation of science quality ocean color data products requires an instrument calibration that is stable over time. Since the VIIRS NIR Degradation Anomaly directly impacts the bands used for atmospheric correction of the ocean color data (Bands M6 and M7), the VOST has adapted the VIIRS on-orbit calibration approach to meet the ocean science requirements. The solar diffuser calibration time series and the solar diffuser stability monitor time series have been used to derive changes in the instrument response and diffuser reflectance over time for bands M1-M11.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN6422
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Emission spectroscopy measurements in the post-shock layer in front of low density ablative material samples of different shapes were obtained in the NASA Langley HYMETS arcjet facility. A horizontal line of measurement positions was imaged on the entrance slit of the spectrometer allowing detection of the entire stagnation line in front of the samples. The stagnation line measurements were used to compare the post-shock layer emission signatures in front of PICA and FiberForm. The emission signatures of H, NH, and OH are characteristic for pyrolysis gases and consequently were only observed in front of the PICA samples. CN and C were found in front of both materials and are mainly due to interactions of the carbon fibers with the plasma. In all tests with instrumented samples, the emission of Mn, Cr, and Ni was observed when the thermocouple temperatures reached or exceeded ~1,500 K, strongly indicating erosion of the molten thermocouple tips. Temperatures in the post-shock layer were estimated from comparing the CN band emission to spectral simulation. The resulting rotational and vibrational temperatures were on the order of 7,000 to 9,000 K and close to each other indicating a plasma condition close to equilibrium. In addition to the stagnation line configurations, off-axis lines of observation were investigated to gather information about spalled particles in the flow. From a comparison of measured continuum emission with simulated Planck radiation, average particle temperatures along the measured line of observation were determined for two cases. Particle temperatures between 3,500 and 2,000 K were found. A comprehensive investigation of the entire amount of data set is ongoing.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: NF1676L-22893 , AIAA Aviation 2016; Jun 13, 2016 - Jun 17, 2016; Washington, DC; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A method of remotely measuring surface recession of a material sample in a plasma flow through emission spectroscopy of the post shock layer was characterized through experiments in the NASA Langley HYMETS arc jet facility. Different methods for delivering the seed products into the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) material samples were investigated. Three samples were produced by seeding the PICA material with combinations of Al, Si, HfO2, VB2, Al2O3, SiO2, TiC, HfC, NaCl, and MgCl2 through infusing seed materials into a core of PICA, or through encapsulating seed material in an epoxy disk, mechanically bonding the disk to a PICA sample. The PICA samples seeded with the candidate tracers were then tested at surface temperatures near 2400 K under low pressure air plasma. The emission of Al, Ti, V, Na, and Mg in the post-shock layer was observed in the UV with a high resolution imaging spectrometer viewing the whole stagnation line from the side, and from UV to NIR with a fiber-coupled miniaturized spectrometer observing the sample surface in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1,100 nm from the front through a collimator. Al, Na, and Mg were found to be emitting in the post-shock spectra even before the recession reached the seeding depth - therefore possibly characterizing the pyrolysis process rather than the recession itself. The appearance of Ti and V emission in the spectra was well correlated with the actual recession which was monitored through a video of the front surface of the sample. The applicability of a seed material as an indicator for recession appears to be related to the melting temperature of the seed material. Future parametric studies will be carried out in low power plasma facilities at the University of Kentucky.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: NF1676L-23206 , 2016 AIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition; Jan 04, 2016 - Jan 08, 2016; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The spallation phenomenon was studied through numerical analysis using a coupled Lagrangian particle tracking code and a hypersonic aerothermodynamics computational fluid dynamics solver. The results show that carbon emission from spalled particles results in a significant modification of the gas composition of the post shock layer. Preliminary results from a test-campaign at the NASA Langley HYMETS facility are presented. Using an automated image processing of high-speed images, two-dimensional velocity vectors of the spalled particles were calculated. In a 30 second test at 100 W/cm2 of cold-wall heat-flux, more than 1300 particles were detected, with an average velocity of 102 m/s, and most frequent observed velocity of 60 m/s.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: NF1676L-20135 , European Symposium on Aerothermodynamics for Space Vehicles; Mar 02, 2015 - Mar 06, 2015; Lisbon; Portugal
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The effort to resolve data quality issues and improve on the initial data evaluation methodologies of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project was an extensive one. These evaluations have resulted, to date, in three major reprocessings of the entire data set where each reprocessing addressed the data quality issues that could be identified up to the time of each reprocessing. The number of chapters (21) needed to document this extensive work in the SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series requires three volumes. The chapters in Volumes 9, 10, and 11 are in a logical order sequencing through sensor calibration, atmospheric correction, masks and flags, product evaluations, and bio-optical algorithms. The first chapter of Volume 9 is an overview of the calibration and validation program, including a table of activities from the inception of the SeaWiFS Project. Chapter 2 describes the fine adjustments of sensor detector knee radiances, i.e., radiance levels where three of the four detectors in each SeaWiFS band saturate. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the analyses of the lunar and solar calibration time series, respectively, which are used to track the temporal changes in radiometric sensitivity in each band. Chapter 5 outlines the procedure used to adjust band 7 relative to band 8 to derive reasonable aerosol radiances in band 7 as compared to those in band 8 in the vicinity of Lanai, Hawaii, the vicarious calibration site. Chapter 6 presents the procedure used to estimate the vicarious calibration gain adjustment factors for bands 1-6 using the waterleaving radiances from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) offshore of Lanai. Chapter 7 provides the adjustments to the coccolithophore flag algorithm which were required for improved performance over the prelaunch version. Chapter 8 is an overview of the numerous modifications to the atmospheric correction algorithm that have been implemented. Chapter 9 describes the methodology used to remove artifacts of sun glint contamination for portions of the imagery outside the sun glint mask. Finally, Chapter 10 explains a modification to the ozone interpolation method to account for actual time differences between the SeaWiFS and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) orbits.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-2000-206892/VOL9 , NAS 1.15:206892/VOL9 , Rept-2001-00416-0/VOL9 , (ISSN 1522-8789)
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This report documents the scientific activities that took place at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy from 2-6 August 1999. The ultimate objective of the field campaign was to evaluate the capabilities of a new instrument called the SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurements (SeaPRISM). SeaPRISM is based on a CE-318 sun photometer made by CIMEL Electronique (Paris, France). The CE-318 is an automated, robotic system which measures the direct sun irradiance plus the sky radiance in the sun plane and in the almucantar plane. The data are transmitted over a satellite link, and this remote operation capability has made the device very useful for atmospheric measurements. The revision to the CE-318 that makes the instrument potentially useful for SeaWiFS calibration and validation activities is to include a capability for measuring the radiance leaving the sea surface in wavelengths suitable for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration. The initial evaluation of this new capability involved above- and in-water measurement protocols. An intercomparison of the water-leaving radiances derived from SeaPRISM and an in-water system showed the overall spectral agreement was approximately 8.6%, but the blue-green channels intercompared at the 5% level. A blue-green band ratio comparison was at the 4% level.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: NASA/TM-2000-206892/VOL13 , NAS 1.15:206892/VOL13 , Rept-2001-00903-0 , (ISSN 1522-8789)
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