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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Sensitivity experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) show that parameterized rain re-evaporation has a large impact on simulated precipitation patterns in the tropical Pacific, especially on the configuration of the model s intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). Weak re-evaporation leads t o the formation of a "double ITCZ" during the northern warm season. The double ITCZ is accompanied by strong coupling between precipitation and high-frequency vertical motion in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Strong reevaporation leads to a better overall agreement of simulated precipitation with observations. The model s double ITCZ bias is reduced. At the same time, correlation between high-frequency vertical motion in the PBL and precipitation is reduced. Experiments with modified physics suggest that evaporative cooling by rain near the PBL top weakens the coupling between precipitation and vertical motion. This may reduce the model s tendency to form double ITCZs. The strength of high-frequency vertical motions in the PBL was also reduced directly through the introduction of a diffusive cumulus momentum transport (DCMT) parameterization. The DCMT had a visible impact on simulated precipitation in the tropics, but did not reduce the model s double bias in all cases.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A global mountain wave parameterization for prediction of wave-related displacements and turbulence is described. The parameterization is used with input from National Meteorological Center (NMC) analyses of wind and temperature to examine small-scale disturbances encountered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration high-altitude ER-2 during the Second Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment (AASE-II). The magnitude and location of observed large wave events are well reproduced. A strong correlation is suggested between patches of moderate turbulence encountered by the ER-2 and locations where breaking mountain waves are predicted by the parameterization. These facts suggest that useful forecasts of global mountain wave activity, including wave-related clear-air turbulence, can be made quickly and inexpensively using our mountain wave parameterization with input from current numerical forecast models.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Weather and Forecasting (ISSN 0882-8156); 9; 2; p. 241-253
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The wind and constituent measurements from the polar aircraft data are used to compute the flux spectra. Although there is variation from flight to flight, the flux spectra generally fit a -2 to -1.5 power law as expected theoretically. This result suggests that tracer fluxes from small scale features do not substantially contribute to the overall tracer budget relative to the fluxes from the larger scales.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 19; 11, J
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The 1930s was characterized by a decade of rainfall deficits and high temperatures that desiccated much of the United States Great Plains. Numerous dust storms created one of the most severe environmental catastrophes in U.S. history and led to the popular characterization of much of the southern Great Plains as the Dust Bowl . In this study, we show that the origin of the drought was in the anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures that occurred during that decade. We further show that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface were essential to the development of the severe drought conditions. The results are based on simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project general circulation model forced with observed and idealized sea surface temperatures. We contrast the 1930s drought with other major droughts of the 20th century, and speculate on the possibility of another Dust Bowl developing in the foreseeable future.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: This study provides explanations for some of the experimental findings of Chao (2000) and Chao and Chen (2001) concerning the mechanisms responsible for the ITCZ in an aqua-planet model. These explanations are then applied to explain the origin of some of the systematic errors in the GCM simulation of ITCZ precipitatin over oceans. The ITCZ systematic errors are highly sensitive to model physics and by extension model horizontal resolution. The findings in this study along with those of Chao (2000) and Chao and Chen (2001, 2004) contribute to building a theoretical foundation for ITCZ study. A few possible methods of alleviating the systematic errors in the GCM simulaiton of ITCZ are discussed. This study uses a recent version of the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) GCM.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The propagation of orographic gravity waves into an atmosphere with exponentially decreasing density is simulated with a two-dimensional, nonlinear, time-dependent numerical model. After the stationary wave is established over the mountain, the model predicts that wave breaking causes a large reduction of the vertical momentum flux in the flow, not only at levels where wave breaking is present, but also far below the lowest occurrence of overturning. More than half of the decrease in momentum flux is explained by the presence of large amplitude, downward propagating waves, which are generated in regions of wave breaking. The downward propagating waves appear almost simultaneously with overturning, and have nonzero phase speeds, suggesting a strongly nonlinear generation mechanism that depends on local wave properties. The generation of these downward propagating waves is a robust process, insensitive to mountain height, mountain width, or density scale height. These results have important implications for observational studies of orographically generated waves as well as for schemes that seek to parameterize the effects of orogoraphy in large-scale models.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 46; 2109-213
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: This is the first of a two part study examining the connection of the equatorial momentum budget in an AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model), with simulated equatorial surface wind stresses over the Pacific. The AGCM used in this study forms part of a newly developed coupled forecasting system used at NASA's Seasonal- to-Interannual Prediction Project. Here we describe the model and present results from a 20-year (1979-1999) AMIP-type experiment forced with observed SSTs (Sea Surface Temperatures). Model results are compared them with available observational data sets. The climatological pattern of extra-tropical planetary waves as well as their ENSO-related variability is found to agree quite well with re-analysis estimates. The model's surface wind stress is examined in detail, and reveals a reasonable overall simulation of seasonal interannual variability, as well as seasonal mean distributions. However, an excessive annual oscillation in wind stress over the equatorial central Pacific is found. We examine the model's divergent circulation over the tropical Pacific and compare it with estimates based on re-analysis data. These comparisons are generally good, but reveal excessive upper-level convergence in the central Pacific. In Part II of this study a direct examination of individual terms in the AGCM's momentum budget is presented. We relate the results of this analysis to the model's simulation of surface wind stress.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This is the first quarter's report on research to extract global gravity-wave data from satellite data and to model those observations synoptically. Preliminary analysis of global maps of extracted middle atmospheric temperature variance from the CRISTA instrument is presented, which appear to contain gravity-wave information. Corresponding simulations of global gravity-wave and mountain-wave activity during this mission period are described using global ray-tracing and mountain-wave models, and interesting similarities among simulated data and CRISTA data are noted. Climatological simulations of mesospheric gravity-wave activity using the HWM-03 wind-temperature climatology are also reported, for comparison with UARS MLS data. Preparatory work on modeling of gravity wave observations from space-based platforms and subsequent interpretation of the MLS gravity-wave product are also described. Preliminary interpretation and relation to the research objectives are provided, and further action for the next quarter's research is recommended.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: NASA/CR-1998-206886 , NAS 1.26:206886 , Rept-5090-1
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: 1] CGILS-the CFMIP-GASS Intercomparison of Large Eddy Models (LESs) and single column models (SCMs)-investigates the mechanisms of cloud feedback in SCMs and LESs under idealized climate change perturbation. This paper describes the CGILS results from 15 SCMs and 8 LES models. Three cloud regimes over the subtropical oceans are studied: shallow cumulus, cumulus under stratocumulus, and well-mixed coastal stratus/stratocumulus. In the stratocumulus and coastal stratus regimes, SCMs without activated shallow convection generally simulated negative cloud feedbacks, while models with active shallow convection generally simulated positive cloud feedbacks. In the shallow cumulus alone regime, this relationship is less clear, likely due to the changes in cloud depth, lateral mixing, and precipitation or a combination of them. The majority of LES models simulated negative cloud feedback in the well-mixed coastal stratus/stratocumulus regime, and positive feedback in the shallow cumulus and stratocumulus regime. A general framework is provided to interpret SCM results: in a warmer climate, the moistening rate of the cloudy layer associated with the surface-based turbulence parameterization is enhanced; together with weaker large-scale subsidence, it causes negative cloud feedback. In contrast, in the warmer climate, the drying rate associated with the shallow convection scheme is enhanced. This causes positive cloud feedback. These mechanisms are summarized as the "NESTS" negative cloud feedback and the "SCOPE" positive cloud feedback (Negative feedback from Surface Turbulence under weaker Subsidence-Shallow Convection PositivE feedback) with the net cloud feedback depending on how the two opposing effects counteract each other. The LES results are consistent with these interpretations
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN12723 , Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems; 5; 4
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Variability on scales of 200 km or less in the lower stratosphere is examined using potential temperature data collected during the AASE campaign. Enhanced variability is found over regions containing topography presumably due to gravity waves. The effect of gravity wave critical levels on topographically induced variability is examined. A significant reduction in variability is found when a critical level is present.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters, Supplement (ISSN 0094-8276); 17; 349-352
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